Roto, f. rota, (literally "breuken") is a term uused tae refer tae Chilean fowk an in pairticular tae the common Chilean. In Chile frae the stairt o the 20t century it wis appleed wi a negative classist connotation tae poor ceety-daellers. It is uised contemptuously in ither Spainyie-speakin kintras an aw, especially Peru an Bolivie, tae refer tae Chileans. Itherwise, despite its defects, the roto is considered a figur o naitional identity an pride in Chile an aw.
The historical oreegin o the uise o the term coud be, as hintle in Chile as in Peru an Bolivie, in the war focht bi Chile against the Peru-Bolivie Confederation. Chilean troops defeatit the confederation at the Battle o Yungay on 20 Januar 1839. As maost o the sodgers o the victorious Chilean airmy wur poor recruits, the defeatit troops cried them rotos. In Chile tributes wur paid tae the victors o Yungay an, in a gestur o recognition, 20 Januar wis declared the Día del Roto Chileno (in Spainyie; Day o the Chilean Roto).
Historical uisage[eedit | eedit soorce]
The term roto haes been uised in Peru syne the times o the Spainyie conquest, whan Diego de Almagro's disappointit troops returned tae Cuzco (efter a failed gowd-seekin expedition in Chile) wi their torn clothes, due tae the extensive an laborious passage on fuit throu the Atacama desert. This term became mair uised efter the Chilean campaigns against the Peru-Bolivie Confederation in 1839 an the War o the Paceefic (1879–84) acause it wis the first time that lairge nummers o Chileans entered Peruvian territory.
The figur o the Chilean Roto is commemoratit bi vera diverse organisations an actors such as the Chilean Airmy, ultra-naitionalist activists, the Communist Pairty an local organisations o ordinar citizens. The Airmy haes a pairticular appreciation tae the figur which wis regardit as the main hero – a collective an anonymous hero- o some o the maist crucial battles in the war against Peru an Bolivie. In this context, the wabpage o the Chilean Airmy states:
The patriotism, bravery an heroism wis embodiet in the Chilean roto, who represents the ordinar man that left aw tae fecht for its "kintra". This wis the ane who focht in Yungay an characterise hissel bi his fierceness an determination.
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- http://www.ejercito.cl/historia/hisp-ind.htm; 15 December 2004
- Epopeya del “roto” chileno, by Oreste Plath.
- Exaltación del mestizo: la invención del roto chileno, by Horacio Gutiérrez.