Python (programmin leid)

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Python logo and wordmark.svg
Paradigm(s) multi-paradigm: object-orientit, imperative, functional, procedural, reflective
Appeared in 20 Februar 1991; 26 years ago (1991-02-20)[1]
Designed bi Guido van Rossum
Developer Python Software Foundation
Stable release 3.5.1 /
7 December 2015 (2015-12-07)[2]
2.7.11 /
5 December 2015 (2015-12-05)[3]
Typin discipline duck, dynamic, strang, gradual (as o Python 3.5)[4]
Major implementations CPython, IronPython, Jython, PyPy
Dialects Cython, RPython, Stackless Python
Influenced bi ABC,[5] ALGOL 68,[6] C,[7] C++,[8] Dylan,[9] Haskell,[10] Icon,[11] Java,[12] Lisp,[13] Modula‑3,[8] Perl
Influenced Boo, Cobra, CoffeeScript,[14] D, F#, Falcon, Genie,[15] Go, Groovy, JavaScript,[16][17] Julia,[18] Nim, Ruby,[19] Swift,[20]
OS Cross-platform
License Python Software Foundation License
Usual filename extensions .py, .pyc, .pyd, .pyo,[21] pyw, .pyz[22]

Python is a widely uised heich-level programmin leid for general-purpose programmin, creautit bi Guido van Rossum an first released in 1991. An interpretit leid, Python haes a design filosofie which emphasizes code readability (notably uisin whitespace indentation tae deleemit code blocks rather nor curly braces or keywirds), an a syntax which allaes programmers tae express concepts in fewer lines o code nor possible in leids such as C++ or Java.[23][24] The leid provides constructs intendit tae enable writin clear programs on baith a smaw an lairge scale.[25]

Python featurs a dynamic teep seestem an automatic memory management an supports multiple programmin paradigms, includin object-orientit, imperative, functional programmin, an procedural styles. It haes a lairge an comprehensive staundart leebrar.[26]

Python interpreters are available for mony operatin seestems, allaein Python code tae run on a wide variety o systems. CPython, the reference implementation o Python, is open soorce saftware[27] an haes a commonty-based development model, as dae nearly aw o its variant implementations. CPython is managed bi the non-profit Python Software Foundation.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "The History of Python: A Brief Timeline of Python". Blogger. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2016-03-20. 
  2. Hastings, Larry (2015-12-07). "Python 3.5.1 and Python 3.4.4rc1 are now available". Python Insider. The Python Core Developers. Retrieved 2015-12-08. 
  3. "Python Release Python 2.7.11". Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  4. "Type hinting for Python". 24 December 2014. Retrieved 5 Mey 2015. 
  5. "Why was Python created in the first place?". General Python FAQ. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 22 Mairch 2007. 
  6. Kuchling, Andrew M. (22 December 2006). "Interview with Guido van Rossum (July 1998)". Retrieved 12 Mairch 2012. 
  7. van Rossum, Guido (1993). "An Introduction to Python for UNIX/C Programmers". Proceedings of the NLUUG najaarsconferentie (Dutch UNIX users group). even though the design of C is far from ideal, its influence on Python is considerable. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Classes". The Python Tutorial. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 20 Februar 2012. It is a mixture of the class mechanisms found in C++ and Modula-3 
  9. Simionato, Michele. "The Python 2.3 Method Resolution Order". Python Software Foundation. The C3 method itself has nothing to do with Python, since it was invented by people working on Dylan and it is described in a paper intended for lispers 
  10. Kuchling, A. M. "Functional Programming HOWTO". Python v2.7.2 documentation. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 9 Februar 2012. 
  11. Schemenauer, Neil; Peters, Tim; Hetland, Magnus Lie (18 Mey 2001). "PEP 255 – Simple Generators". Python Enhancement Proposals. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 9 Februar 2012. 
  12. Smith, Kevin D.; Jewett, Jim J.; Montanaro, Skip; Baxter, Anthony (2 September 2004). "PEP 318 – Decorators for Functions and Methods". Python Enhancement Proposals. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 24 Februar 2012. 
  13. "More Control Flow Tools". Python 3 documentation. Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 24 Julie 2015. 
  14. "CoffeeScript borrows chained comparisons from Python". 
  15. "Genie Language - A brief guide". Retrieved 2015-12-28. 
  16. "Perl and Python influences in JavaScript". 24 Februar 2013. Retrieved 15 Mey 2015. 
  17. Rauschmayer, Axel. "Chapter 3: The Nature of JavaScript; Influences". O'Reilly, Speaking JavaScript. Retrieved 15 Mey 2015. 
  18. "Why We Created Julia". Julia website. Februar 2012. Retrieved 5 Juin 2014. 
  19. Bini, Ola (2007). Practical JRuby on Rails Web 2.0 Projects: bringing Ruby on Rails to the Java platform. Berkeley: APress. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-59059-881-8. 
  20. Lattner, Chris (3 Juin 2014). "Chris Lattner's Homepage". Chris Lattner. Retrieved 3 Juin 2014. The Swift language is the product of tireless effort from a team of language experts, documentation gurus, compiler optimization ninjas, and an incredibly important internal dogfooding group who provided feedback to help refine and battle-test ideas. Of course, it also greatly benefited from the experiences hard-won by many other languages in the field, drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and far too many others to list. 
  21. File extension .pyo will be removed in Python 3.5. See PEP 0488
  22. Holth, Moore (30 Mairch 2014). "PEP 0441 -- Improving Python ZIP Application Support". Retrieved 12 Nov 2015. 
  23. Summerfield, Mark. Rapid GUI Programming with Python and Qt. Python is a very expressive language, which means that we can usually write far fewer lines of Python code than would be required for an equivalent application written in, say, C++ or Java 
  24. McConnell, Steve (30 November 2009). Code Complete, p. 100. ISBN 9780735636972. 
  25. Kuhlman, Dave. "A Python Book: Beginning Python, Advanced Python, and Python Exercises". 
  26. "About Python". Python Software Foundation. Retrieved 24 Aprile 2012. , second section "Fans of Python use the phrase "batteries included" to describe the standard library, which covers everything from asynchronous processing to zip files."
  27. "History and License". Retrieved 5 December 2016.  "All Python releases are Open Source"