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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Born19 Mey 1762(1762-05-19)
Rammenau, Saxony
Dee'd27 Januar 1814(1814-01-27) (aged 51)
Berlin, Proushie
Alma materVarsity o Jena
(1780; na degree)
Leipzig Varsity
(1781–1784; na degree)
Era18t-century filosofie
RegionWastren Filosofie
SchuilGerman idealism
Post-Kantian transcendental idealism[1]
Jena Romanticism
Romantic naitionalism[2]
InstitutionsVarsity o Jena
Varsity o Erlangen
Varsity o Berlin
Main interests
Sel-consciousness an sel-awareness, moral filosofie, poleetical filosofie
Notable ideas
Das absolute Bewusstseyn (the absolute consciousness),[3] Thesis–Antithesis–Synthesis (thesis–antithesis–synthesis),[4] Nicht-Ich (the not-I), das Streben (strivin), gegenseitig anerkennen (mutual recogneetion), Wissenschaftslehre (Doctrine o Science), der Satz der Wechselbestimmbarkeit (the Principle o Reciprocal Determination),[5] coinin the terms Real-Idealismus ("real-idealism") andIdeal-Realismus ("ideal-realism") tae chairacterise Wissenschaftslehre (his ain version o transcendental idealism),[6][7] filosofie pragmatic history o the human spirit (pragmatische Geschichte des menschlichen Geistes),[8] Anstoss (impulse), Tathandlung (fact an/or act), Aufforderung (cryin, summons), intellectual intueetion,[9] the primacy o the practical (Handeln),[10][11][12]
Urtrieb (oreeginal drive),
"Fichte's oreeginal insicht,"[13]
the pouer o productive imaigination as an oreeginal pouer o the mynd[14][15]

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (German: [ˈjoːhan ˈɡɔtliːp ˈfɪçtə]; Mey 19, 1762 – Januar 27, 1814), a German filosofer, acame a foondin figur o the filosofical muivement kent as German idealism, which developed frae the theoretical an ethical writins o Immanuel Kant. Recently, filosofers an scholars hae begun tae appreciate Fichte as an important filosofer in his ain richt due tae his oreeginal insichts into the naitur o sel-consciousness or sel-awareness.[13] Fichte wis an aa the oreeginator o thesis–antithesis–synthesis (Thesis–Antithesis–Synthesis),[4] an idea that is eften erroneously attributit tae Hegel.[23] Lik Descartes an Kant afore him, Fichte wis motivated bi the problem o subjectivity an consciousness. Fichte an aa wrote wirks o poleetical filosofie; he haes a reputation as ane o the faithers o German naitionalism.


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  1. Nectarios G. Limnatis, German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge: Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, Springer, 2008, pp. 138, 177.
  2. Kerrigan, William Thomas (1997), "Young America": Romantic Nationalism in Literature and Politics, 1843–1861, University of Michigan, 1997, p. 150.
  3. "Fichte in Berlin to Schelling in Jena, May 31–August 7[8?], 1801," in: Michael Vater and David W. Wood (eds. and trs.), The Philosophical Rupture between Fichte and Schelling: Selected Texts and Correspondence (1800-1802), SUNY Press, 2012, p. 56.
  4. a b "Review o Aenesidemus" ("Rezension des Aenesidemus", de [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung], Februar 11–12, 1794). Trans. Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann (1993). Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press. p. 63. (See an aa: FTP, p. 46; Breazeale 1980–81, pp. 545–68; Breazeale and Rockmore 1994, p. 19; Breazeale 2013, pp. 36–37; Waibel, Breazeale, Rockmore 2010, p. 157: "Fichte believes that the I must be grasped as the unity of synthesis and analysis.")
  5. The Principle o Reciprocal Determination is the principle that, accordin tae Fichte (Wissenschaftslehre nova methodo, "Halle Nachschrift," 1796/1797), expleecitly guides aw filosofical reflection; it is derived frae the reciprocally determinable relationship atween the finite I an its ither. In a similar way, Fichte haed derived in his Foondations o the Science o Knawledge (publ. 1794/1795, paras. 1–2) the logical laws o identity an non-contradiction frae the oreeginal positin an coonter-positin o the I. (See Breazeale 2013, pp. 54–5.)
  6. Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre, 1794/1795, p. 274.
  7. Breazeale 2013, pp. 305 and 308 n. 24.
  8. Gesamtausgabe I/2: 364–65; Daniel Breazeale, "Fichte's Conception of Philosophy as a "Pragmatic History of the Human Mind" and the Contributions of Kant, Platner, and Maimon," Journal of the History of Ideas, 62(4), Oct. 2001, pp. 685–703; Zöller 1998, p. 130 n. 30; Sedgwick 2007, p. 144 n. 33; Breazeale and Rockmore 2010, p. 50 n. 27: "Α »history of the human mind« is a genetic account of the self-constitution of the I in the form of an ordered description of the various acts of thinking that are presupposed by the act of thinking the I"; Posesorski 2012, p. 81: "Pragmatische Geschichte des menschlichen Geistes designates reason's timeless course of production of the different levels of the a priori system of all knowledge, which are exclusively uncovered and portrayed genetically by personal self-conscious reflection"; Breazeale 2013, p. 72.
  9. Gesamtausgabe II/3: 24–25; Breazeale 2013, p. 198.
  10. Fichte, J. G., "Zweite Einleitung in die Wissenschaftslehre" ("Second Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre"; 1797); Rocío Zambrana, Hegel's Theory of Intelligibility, University of Chicago Press, 2015, p. 151 n. 15.
  11. FTP, p. 365; Waibel, Breazeale, Rockmore 2010, p. 157; Breazeale 2013, pp. 354 and 404–439.
  12. Cf. KpV A219.
  13. a b Dieter Henrich, "Fichte's Original Insight", Contemporary German Philosophy 1 (1982[1966]), ed. bi Darrel E. Christensen et al., pp. 15–52 (translation o Henrich, Dieter (1966), "Fichtes ursprüngliche Einsicht", in: Subjektivität und Metaphysik. Festschrift für Wolfgang Cramer eedited bi D. Henrich und H. Wagner, Frankfurt/M., pp. 188–232). Henrich's airticle is an analysis o the follaein three presentations o the Wissenschaftslehre: Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre (Foondations o the Science o Knawledge, 1794/1795), Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (An Attempt a New Presentation o the Wissenschaftslehre, 1797/1798), an Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (Presentation o the Wissenschaftslehre, 1801).
  14. Fichte's concept o productive imaigination is based on Immanuel Kant's distinction atween productive imagination which explains the possibility o cogneetion o a priori, an the reproductive imaigination that explains the synthesis o empirical laws (KrV B152).
  15. a b Breazeale, Dan, "Johann Gottlieb Fichte", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL: <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2012/entries/johann-fichte/>.
  16. Fichte wrote that his admiration for Maimon's talent "[k]nows no limit," an an aa that "Maimon has completely overturned the entire Kantian philosophy as it has been understood by everyone until now." (Gesamtausgabe III/2: 275)
  17. Breazeale 2013, p. 23.
  18. Breazeale 2013, p. 2.
  19. Breazeale 2013, p. 308.
  20. Breazeale 2013, p. 94.
  21. Maier, S. (2009). "Der Einfluss der Fichteschen Philosophie in der Medizin bei Adolph Karl August Eschenmayer Archived 2012-12-23 at the Wayback Machine. Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen: Medizinische Fakultät.
  22. Breazeale and Rockmore 2010: David Kenosian, "Fichtean Elements in Wilhelm von Humboldt's Philosophy of Language", esp. p. 357.
  23. Robert C. Solomon, In the Spirit of Hegel, Oxford University Press, p. 23.


  • Daniel Breazeale. Thinking Through the Wissenschaftslehre: Themes from Fichte's Early Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.