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Hydrochloric acid

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Hydrochloric acid
Ither names
  • Muriatic acid[1]
  • Spirits of salt[2]
EC Nummer 231-595-7
Appearance Colourless, transparent liquid
R-phrases R34, R37
S-phrases (S1/2), S26, S45
NFPA 704
Relatit compoonds
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Hydrochloric acid is a colourless inorganic chemical seestem wi the formula H
. Hydrochloric acid haes a distinctive pungent smell. It is mainly produced as a precursor tae vinyl chloride for PVC. It is clessifee'd as strangly acidic an can attack the skin ower a wide composeetion range, syne the hydrogen chloride practically dissociates completely in solution.

Hydrochloric acid is the semplest chlorine-based acid seestem conteenin watter. It is a solution o hydrogen chloride an watter, an a variety o ither chemical speshies, includin hydronium an chloride ions. It is an important chemical reagent an industrial chemical, uised primarily in the production o polyvinyl chloride for plastic. In hoosehauds, dilutit hydrochloric acid is eften uised as a descalin augent. In the fuid industrie, hydrochloric acid is uised as a fuid additive an in the production o gelatin. Hydrochloric acid is uised in laither processin forby.

Hydrochloric acid wis diskivert bi the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan aroond the year 800 AD.[3][4] Hydrochloric acid wis historically cried acidum salis, muriatic acid, an speerits o saut acause it wis produced frae rock saut an "green vitriol" (Iron(II) sulfate) (bi Basilius Valentinus in the 15t century) an later frae the chemically seemilar common saul an sulfuric acid (bi Johann Rudolph Glauber in the 17t century). Free hydrochloric acid wis first formally descrived in the 16t century bi Libavius. Later, it wis uised bi chemists sic as Glauber, Priestley, an Davy in thair scienteefic research. Unless pressurised or cuiled, hydrochloric acid will turn intae a gas if thare is aroond 60% or less o watter. Hydrochloric acid is kent as hydronium chloride an aw.


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  1. "Hydrochloric Acid". Archived frae the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  2. "spirits of salt". Retrieved 29 Mey 2012.
  3. "Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Hydrochloric acid (HMDB0002306)". www.hmdb.ca. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  4. Pubchem. "hydrochloric acid". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov (in Inglis). Retrieved 4 November 2017.