Hassan Touer

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Coordinates: 34°01′26.98″N 6°49′22.17″W / 34.0241611°N 6.8228250°W / 34.0241611; -6.8228250

The Hassan Touer

Hassan Touer or Tour Hassan (Arabic: صومعة حسان‎) is the minaret o an incomplete mosque in Rabat, Morocco.[1] Commissioned bi Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, the third Caliph o the Almohad Caliphate in 1195, the touer wis intendit tae be the lairgest minaret in the warld alang with the mosque, awso intendit tae be the warld's lairgest.[2] When al-Mansur deed in 1199, construction on the mosque stoppit. The tower reached 44 m (140 ft), aboot hauf o its intendit 86 m (260 ft) hicht. The rest o the mosque wis awso left incomplete, wi anelie the beginnings o seiveral walls an 348 columns bein constructit.[3] The touer, made o reid sanudstone,[4] alang wi the remains o the mosque an the modren Mausoleum o Mohammed V, forms an important historical an tourist complex in Rabat.

Remnants o wall at Hassan Touer, Rabat, Morocco

Yaqub al-Mansur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Foonder o the Hassan Touer Yaqub al-Mansur wis a member o the Almohad Caliphate, a Berber Muslim empire in the Maghreb and Iberia. The touer, according tae some tradeetions, wis designed bi an astronomer an mathematician named Jabir ibn Aflah who wis awso supposed tae haeve designed Hassan's sister touer, the Giralda o Seville in Al Andalus (modren day Spain). Baith o the touers were modelit on the minaret based on the Koutoubia Mosque in Marrakech, but awso drew influence frae the auncient Egyptian Lichthoose o Alexandria for its hicht an method o ascendancy, a series o ramps.[5]

Yaqub al-Mansur conductit ither wirks in Rabat, maist notably reconstruction o the Kasbah o the Udayas an conversion o the Chellah auncient complex, biggit bi the Phoenicians an Romans,[6] tae a necropolis uisage.

Structur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The mosque is strategically placed on the heich sooth bank o the Bu Regreg river tae provide an imposin spectacle visible for miles aroond.[7] Syne the aurie surrounding wis suburban at the time o construction an lacked the population tae regularly fill the mosque, historians haeve been led tae believe that it wis biggit tae serve double-duty as baith a place o worship an as a fortress.[7]

Instead o stairs, the touer is ascendit bi ramps, which waud haeve alloued the muezzin tae ride a horse tae the tap tae issue the call to prayer.[2] At the center o each o the sax fluirs would haeve been a vaultit chamber surroundit bi the ramps an lit bi the horseshoe-shaped windows set intae the sides o the tower.[7][5] Its exterior is decoratit wi panels o sebka patternin as weel as engagit columns an caipitals cairvit frae the same saundstone as the touer itself, but retains ane marble caipital o Andalusi spolia.[3][7]

Notably, the mosque wis given ceelindrical stone columns rather than the brick piers mair commonly seen in Almohad airchitectur.[7] These columns were tae be formed frae drums o differin hicht, an idea that, while innovative at the time, slowed down construction significantly an contributit tae the mosque's unfinished state.[2] The plan oreeginally includit three smaw inner coortyards, ane in the back, parallel tae the qibla, an the ither twa on aither side o the prayer hall, allouin daylight an fresh air tae flow in through the arcades.[7][2]

In addeetion tae bein incomplete, the mosque sustained some damage in the 1755 Lisbon yirdquauk.[7]

Warld heritage status[eedit | eedit soorce]

This steid wis addit tae the UNESCO Warld Heritage Tentative Leet on Julie 1, 1995 in the Cultural category.[8] It wis grantit Warld Heritage Status in 2012. [9] [10] [11]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Encyclopædia Britannica online
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 The mosque : history, architectural development & regional diversity. Frishman, Martin., Khan, Hasan-Uddin., Al-Asad, Mohammad. London: Thames & Hudson. 2002. ISBN 0500283451. OCLC 630140824. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Rosser-Owen, Mariam. "Andalusi Spolia in Medieval Morocco : "Architectural Politics, Political Architecture." Medieval Encounters, vol. 20, no. 2, Mar. 2014, pp. 152-198. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1163/15700674-12342164.
  4. William A. Hoisington, Lyautey and the French Conquest of Morocco, 1995, Palgrave Macmillan, 292 pages ISBN 0-312-12529-1
  5. 5.0 5.1 SALEM, EL SAYED ABDEL AZIZ. “THE INFLUENCE OF THE LIGHTHOUSE OF ALEXANDRIA ON THE MINARETS OF NORTH AFRICA AND SPAIN.” Islamic Studies, vol. 30, no. 1/2, 1991, pp. 149–156. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20840032.
  6. "Chellah" C.Michael Hogan, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Bennison, Amira K. (2016). The Almoravid and Almohad Empires. Edinburgh University Press. p. 322. ISBN 9780748646807. 
  8. Tour Hassan - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  9. "Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage". UNESCO. 2012. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  10. "Rabat". World Heritage Site. September 2013. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2013-08-17. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 
  11. "Rabat Named UNESCO World Heritage Site". Caribbean News Digital. 2012-11-23. Retrieved 2013-10-06. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media relatit tae Hassan Touer at Wikimedia Commons