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(Reguidit frae Clessical muisic)
Montage o some great classical muisic componers. Frae left tae richt:
Tapmaist row: Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven;
seicont row: Gioachino Rossini, Felix Mendelssohn, Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Giuseppe Verdi;
third row: Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Georges Bizet, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonín Dvořák;
laichmaist row: Edvard Grieg, Edward Elgar, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Aram Khachaturian

Muisic is soond that is makkit by humans for tae be haerd deleeberate-like bi ither humans. Muisic includes singin an playin wi muisical instruments, gif thay are wuid, bress, string or percussion.

Thare monie sindrie styles o muisic the warld ower.

The Airt o Muisic

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The airt o muisic is the jynin o, or the aesome uisse o aether vocal or instrumental soonds for tae ootgie an express emotion.

Forordinar this wad align itsel wi local an cultural staundarts o rythym, melodie an harmonie.

Wi the fouth o muisical genre athort the warld, whuther hit is cryed fowk muisic o the maist hamelt furm, or the maist complex o electronic composeitions, aw o thir are upmakkit bi humans for auditory pleisure an ilkane o thir styles throu oot the warld is cryed muisic.

Muisic can eith like adapt itsel tae poyetry an sang alang wi dancin, an oot throu human heistory haes been o gret importance baith tae ritual an drama.

Nooadays muisic is aye tae the fore wi exploitin sic human emotions, at are seen maistweys throu Televeision, Radio, Theatre an the Internet.

Alsae, wi its abeility tae effect emotions bein weill kent, it is uised in baith psychotherapy an for the betterment o monie mental ills, an espeically wi geriatric anes.

Heistorical idaias an thochts

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A muisical tone wes regairdit for common in the aerlie pairt o the 20t Century as bein characterized bi hou aften its dirl wes haerd. This uniformity gied it a fixed pitch at sindered it frae noise.

Bi the saicont hauf o the 20t Century sic a norrie wes conseidered auld farrant hooanevir, an noise, an betimes silence wad becum pairt o the modren composeition.

Forby tone, the'r ither components o muisic, siclike timbre, rythym an texture, an wi the oncome o electronic machinery in muisic allouin some composers tae upmak non tradeitional wirks, soond coud noo be recordit direct like ontil tapes or digital files.Soonds that war aforehaund unbekent an impossible, war noo tae becum reality.

Aerlie Indien an Chinee Conceptions

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Five Gandharvas (celestial musicianers) frae 4t–5t century CE, nor-wast Sooth Asia, carriein the fower types of muisical instruments. Gandharvas are spak o in Vedic era leiteratur.[1]

Muisic haes aye haed the pouer tae kittle up feelins o ecstacy wi fowk throu oot the centuries. Frae heistorical accoonts, we hae this idaias frae Auld Warld Indie .

The uisse o muisic in releigion gies us Vedic Hymns frae the auncient scripturs o Hinduism an is aiblins the auldest Vocal tradeition frae lang syne an gaes back as monie as 3000 year.

Sic an airt haes growne ower monie century intil a profoond an melodic discipline. Melled wi the releigious text an structur bonnielie expressed bi the narrators skeill. Sic vocal skeill staunds peels wi onie ane o the muisical instruments pleyin alangside it.

The'r nae gret sibness here wi Wastren style muisic an the complexity o melody gangs faur abuin onie o wir Wastren models.

Atween the narrator/Sangster an the instrumentalist the'r aften spontaneous mimicin o soond at can staund conter tae the stot an rythym o the drums. This can kittle gret excitement, brocht on bi lealtie tae the rules o Raga, the auncient melodic pattrens o Indien Muisic.

Sib tae Indien muisic is Chinee muisic, at haes tradeitionally been jyned bi Narrative an ceremony alsae.

The faur kent Chinee Philosopher Confucius (541-479 BCE) gied muckle importance tae muisic, athin the morality o wir Universe.

He sayed at Govrenment an muisic stuid aqual wi ither, an onlie fowk wi guid ken o muisic war able for tae Govren fowk. Alsa he believed at muisic gangs in harmony wi the universe, eikin order tae wir physical warld throu sic harmony. He addit, Truelins muisic reflecks character, an maks pretence an swickerie impossible.

Muisical Idaias frae Auncient Greece

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Muisic wes o muckle importance in Auncient Greece whaur baith muisicianers an sangsters war aye at the for athin Greek theatre.

In eddication muisic wes alsae important an frae sax year auld boys war leared i the skeill. Sich leiteracy in muisic alloued a fouth o developments.

The day we see baith at Releigous Muisic an Classical Muisic cam frae Greek muisic theory an The Greek muisical modes.

Efterhaund, The Rouman an Byzantine Impires an aa gied influence tae Greek muisic alang wi influence frae Eastren Europe.

The auldest ensaumple o muisical composeition alang wi muisical notation we hae the day is cryed The Seikilos Epitaph.

The auldest screed on the subjeck o muisical theory is cryed Harmonika Stoicheia bi Aristoxenus.

Muisic athin the Bible

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Ken o muisic athin the Bible an the Biblical Period is taen maistlins frae leiteral soorces, an aftimes Post Biblical soorces forbye.

Heistorian o Releigion an Muisic Herbert Lockyer Jr tells us o muisic at wes baith vocal an instrumental an wes growthie amang The Hebrews, New Testament Christians an The Christian Kirk oot throu the centuries. Mairatowre, he airts us tae The Auld Testament an hou God's auncient fowk war devote tae baith the study o, an the pleyin o muisic.

Learit scholars o Muisic an Theatre at hiv studied the anthropologie o Semitics an aerlie Judeo Christian cultur hae discuivered common threids atween theatrical an muisical acteivities athin the Classical culturs o The Greeks an The Romans.

For common we finnd performance in a social phenomena cryed Litany. A kinnd o prayer at intaks a series o Invocations or Supplications.

The Jurnal o Releigion an Theatre says that amang the maist aerlie furms o Litany, Hebrew litany wes accompanied bi rowthie muisical tradeition.

Medieval Era 476 til 1400

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A musicianer plays the vielle in a fowerteent-century Medieval manuscript

Durand the Middle ages we hae The Medieval Era at stairts wi the ontak o the singil melodic line, or monophonic chantin oot throu the services bi The Roman Catholic Kirk. Sic muisical notation haed been uised sen lang syne wi Auncient Greek cultur.

It is wi the middle ages houanevir at we hae an innin tae notation bi The Catholic Kirk, allouin for sic chants melodies tae be scrievit doon, an sicwyce forderin the uisse o the selsame melodies oot throu The hail Catholic Impire.

The anely European Medieval repertoire we hae in written furm frae afore 800 CE is the monophonic Liturgical Plainsang chant o The Roman Catholic Kirk, or whit is aiblins better kent as Gregorian Chants.

Forbye thir tradeitions o Kirk muisic we hae secular sang, betimes cryed (Non Releigious Sangs).

The maist weill kent composers o the time war Léonin, Perotin, Guillame de Machant an Walter von der Vogelweide.

The Renaissance Muisic o Europe 1400 til 1600

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A group o Renaissance musicianers in The Concert (1623) by Gerard van Honthorst

The wird renaissance is a Frainch wird at means re-birth, an anent muisic it wes an era o splore an discuivery at in taks the years atween 1400 an 1600.

The aforehaund middle ages period wes a time whan The Roman Catholic Kirk haed owerance o awmaist aw o fowks lifes, an maist muisic wes Kirk reekit an thirled tae thon wi maist composeitions based upo the Plain Chairt that haed been uised frae aerlie Christianity.

Tho maistlins The Catholic Kirk haed control o muisic durand the renaissance period, it did lowse poleitical control ower society at wad allou freedom for composers tae tak influence frae The Airts, Classical Mythologie, Astronomie an Mathematics forbye.

Wi the upmak o prentin graith, scrievit muisic wes able for tae be furthset an distribute widely for the first time.

The ettle for maist muisic wes for it tae be sung, aether bi choirs in The Kirks, or wi sangs or Madrigals.

Muisic athoot vocals wes tae flouer an aa, an wi the forderin o technology we hae speceific wrutten muisic for a wheen o mair agile instruments, the like o The Lute.

The feck o composers i The Aerlie Renaissance haed cam frae the Netherlands an Northren Fraunce. This wes adae wi the backs gien thaim frae thair ain Ryal Coorts.

Efterhaund, sic composin airts war tae spreid oot intil ither pairts o Europe as the success o The Italien Ceitie State taen haud, allouin for monie a Northren Composers tae ventur Sootharts for tae seek oot walth.

A wheen Italien composers haed cam tae Venice at The Basilica o St Marks. Andrea an Giovanni Gabrieli haed furthset braw muisic pieces for muckle choirs an instruments.

Allegri an Palestrina in Roum war tae scrieve whit aiblins wad be conseidered the hinmaist wirk o renaissance composers, wi thair lairge choral wirk at aye kittles the lugs day.


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Baroque muisic is conseidered a style o muisic at wes tae the fore arween 1600-1750. Maisit weill kent for hits guid gaun speirit an grand dramatic style.

Tho muisic the like o Pachelbel's Canon an Vivaldi's The Four Seasons are kenspeckle tae maist o us the day, monie o the maist faur kent personalities o the first pairt o The Baroque Period cam frae Italie,Monteverdi an Corelli tae nemm juist twa.

A guid nummer o the kent tairms frae Baroque cam frae Italie. Contata, Concerta, Sonata, Oratorio an Opera.

The sindrie styles o soond funnd in Ilk Nation cam frae new thinkin on whit wes a Nation State ,an can be haerd no juist wi hou the muisic wes componed but wi thoct an performance forbye.

Monie muisicianers traivelled ower Europe an wad lug in tae ilkane o the Kintries muisic ,gien them new chuckies tae eik til thair ain cairn.

Kenspeckle nemms o muisicianers frae the period are ablo.

Italie Monteverdi , Frescobald , Corelli, Vivaldi, Domenico an Allessandro Scarlatti.

Fraunce Couperin , Lully , Charpentile an Ramean

Germanie Praetorius , Schein , Scheidt , Schultz , Teleman , Handel an Bach

Classical Period 1730-1820

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The years atween 1730 an 1820 are maistlins acceptit as whit we cry The Classical Period in Muisic.

It sits in atween The Baroque an Romantic Periods in muisic.

The texture o classical muisic is thocht o as safter nor Baroque an no sae complex forbye.

Variety an contrast athin a piece are mair noted than in the period aforehaund, wi sic variety o keys,melodies an dynamics uisin crescendo,diminuendo an sforzando alang wi mair aft uised chynges tae muid an timbre.

This wes mair uised in the period nor whit it wes i the Baroque Period.

Fortepiana by Paul McNulty efter Walter & Sohn, c. 1805

The Orchestra wes lairger noo ,an tho melodies war aften shorter, we dae see the dwynin o The Harpsichord an the kythin o a sel staundin Wuidwind section.

As the Harpsichord bacam less popular we hae The Paina brocht intil uisse mair (Fortepiana).

Tho firstlins the Piana haed a lichter soond an texture,aft times wi an Alberti Bass alangside it. Efterhaund it bacam a mair pouerfu an rich soond.

Muckle importance wes gien tae Instrumental muisic.The main kinnds bein Sonata,Trio, String Quartet,Symphony,Concerto,Serenade an Divertimento.

O maist import wes Sonata, at wes uised tae swall the first muivement o the lairger works ,but alsae ither muivements, forbye singil pieces sic as Overtures.

Ablo is a leet o the heidmaist Composers o the Classical muisic Period.

  1. Carl Philip Emaanuel Bach (1714-1788)
  2. Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787)
  3. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
  4. Luigi Boccherini (1743 -1805)
  5. Marianna Martines (1744-1812)
  6. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
  7. Joseph Bologne (Chevalier Saint George) (1745-1799)
  8. Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
  9. Franz Shubert (1797-1828)
  10. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)

Romaticism 1830-1900

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The Era kent as The Romantic Era taks in the years atween 1830 an 1900 whaur muisic ontaen mair expressive soond.

Lairge symphonies an aesome Piana muisic alang wi dramatic Opera an Passionate sangs forbye aw tuik influence frae Airt an Leiterature. A wheen kent nemms frae the period are Brahms,Tchaikovsky,Verdi an Mahler.

The Romantic era is kent fo hits virr an passion mair nor the aforehaund rigid furms o Classical muisic an hauds closer wi Airt,Leiterature an Theatre. Beethoven wes tae the fore in Romanticism wi eikin til the afore thocht o rigid formulas for symphonies an sonatas ,an gied innin til a new gate wi muisic ,in parteiclar wi ither aspects o life ,ensaumple bein his Pastoral Symphony No. 6 at descrives mair Kintrafie scenes.

Anither kenmerk oThe Romantic Era in Muisic is the Virtuoso wi baith Chopin an Liszt bein twa o the maist fawmous o the time anent Piana Virtuoso.

Photograph o Chopin bi Bisson, c. 1849

In the mids o the Romantic era we hae Verdi, wha brocht tae Opera subjecks o social ,poleitical an Naitionalistic themes at fair astoondit Italien Opera.

In Germanie Richard Wagner wes a Composer o ken at wes gey important in the developin o The Operatic Genre. Afore Wagner Opera's war sindert intil cuttie pieces sib til wir modren day muisicals.

The Opera's o Wagner are langer pieces whaur baith characters an idaias war gien short signature melodies cryed Leitmotifs. His norries dominatit the feck o muisic frae muckle symphonies o Mahler an Bruckner tae the mair heroic tone poems an Opera's o Richard Strauss.

His style raxxed the lenth o Italie whaur baith Verdi an Puccini ontaen sic influence. The upmak o mair fantoush composeitions wes tae airt us til the biggest chynge in muisic for monie century wi the oncome o the modren era an the 20t Century.

Kent nemms frae The Romantic Muisic period are ablo.

  1. Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
  2. Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
  3. Guiseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
  4. Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
  5. Fanny Mendelssohn (1805-1847)
  6. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
  7. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897)
  8. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
  9. Sergei Rachmaninov (1873-1943)
  10. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

Muisic in The 20t Century

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The 20t Century haed a rowth o sindrie muisical styles at ordinar fowk wad hae access til. Maistweys this wes acause o the upmak o The Gramaphone Vinyl Records an Radio Braidcasts forbye, allouin The masses tae lug in tae muisic at wes aforehaund onlie haerd bi sillered fowk that coud gang til concerts an Theatres. Thon wes ower expensive for ordinar workin Cless fowk.

The Gramaphone whiles cryed a Phonograph at wes first mass marketit in The 1890's wad gie fowk an innin til monie style o muisic frae athort the Warld. Amateurs haed aye been able for tae perform at hame wi skeilly fowk at coud read muisic alang wi singin an playin thegither forbye.

Wi sic mass productions throu Gramaphone an Radio fowk coud nou coff or lug in tae hamelt or byordinar soonds as weill as ghe kent Classical o Opera an Symphony.

Oot through the 20t Century it wes recordit muisic at wad kittle popular muisic genres, allouin muisicianers an Bands tae hiv thair muisic ditribute athoot gret expence aw aroon their ain Kintrie an whiles aw ower the warld alsae.

Sindrie recordin formats war tae kythe oot throu the 20t year hunders. Vinyl Records, Cassettes an Compact Discs or CD's an bi the mids o the 1990's muisic coud be recordit digitally.

Sic dramatic innovatioun in technology alloued baith Composers an Sang Scrievers tae upmak mair an mair new soonds ,at wad gang conter tae aw kinnd o styles frae previous times.

The developin o pouerfu Guitars an soond amplifiers haed alloued Bands tae biggen thair muisic for tae play for mair an mair fowk in lairger haa's an arena.

Styles o Muisic

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  1. Rowell 2015, pp. 11–14.