Charles I, Keeng o Scots

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Charles I
Portrait frae the studio o Anthony van Dyck, 1636
Keeng o Ingland an Ireland (mair...)
Ring27 Mairch 1625 – 30 Januar 1649
Coronation2 Februar 1626
PredecessorJames I
SuccessorCharles II (de jure)
Cooncil o State (de facto)
Keeng o Scotland (mair...)
Ring27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
Coronation18 Juin 1633
PredecessorJames VI
SuccessorCharles II
Born19 November 1600(1600-11-19)
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland
Dee'd30 Januar 1649(1649-01-30) (aged 48)
Whitehall, Lunnon
Buirial9 Februar 1649
St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Ingland
SpouseHenrietta Maria o Fraunce
HooseHoose o Stuart
FaitherJames VI o Scotland an I o Ingland
MitherAnne o Denmark

Charles I, king o Scots (19 November 1600-30 Januar 1649) wis king o Scots as Charles I, an king o Ingland an king o Ireland as Charles I forby.

Charles wis born intae the Hoose o Stuart as the seicont son o Keeng James VI o Scotland, but efter his faither inheritit the Inglis throne in 1603, he muived tae Ingland, whaur he spent muckle o the rest o his life. He becam heir apparent tae the thrones o Ingland, Scotland an Ireland on the daith o his elder brither, Henry Frederick, Prince o Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessfu an unpopular attempt tae mairy him tae the Spaingie Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminatit in an aicht-month veesit tae Spain in 1623 that demonstratit the futility o the mairiage negotiations. Twa year later, he mairied the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria o Fraunce insteid.

Efter his succession, Charles quarrelled wi the Pairlament o Ingland, that socht tae crib his ryal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine richt o keengs an thocht he coud govren accordin tae his awn conscience. Mony o his subjects opponed his policies, in pairteecular the levyin o taxes withoot pairlamentar consent, an perceived his actions as thae o a tyrannical absolute monarch. His releegious policies, coupled wi his mairiage tae a Roman Catholic, generatit the antipathy an mistrust o reformed groups sic as the Inglis Puritans an Scots Covenanters, that thocht his views too Catholic. He supportit heich kirk ecclesiastics, sic as Richard Montagu an William Laud, an failed tae aid Protestant forces successfully in the Thirty Years' War. His attempts tae force the Kirk o Scotland tae adopt heich Anglican practices led tae the Bishops' Wars, strenthened the poseetion o the Inglis an Scots pairlaments an helped precipitate his awn dounfaw.

Frae 1642, Charles focht the airmies o the Inglis an Scots pairlaments in the Inglis Ceevil War. Efter his defeat in 1645, he surrendered tae a Scots force that eventually haundit him ower tae the Inglis Pairlament. Charles refuised tae accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, an temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-impreesoned on the Isle o Wicht, Charles forged an alliance wi Scotland, but bi the end o 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Airmy haed consolidatit its control ower Ingland. Charles wis tried, convictit, an executit for heich traison in Januar 1649. The monarchy wis abolished an a republic cried the Commonweel o Ingland wis declared. The monarchy wis restored tae Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660.