Tverskoy Destrict

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Coat o airms o Tverskoy Destrict
Tverskoy an Kitai-gorod on the map o Moscow. As o 2007, Kitai-gorod is a separate territory govrened directly bi Central Admeenistrative Okrug

Tverskoy Destrict (Roushie: Тверско́й райо́н‎) is a destrict o Central Admeenistrative Okrug o Moscow, Roushie. Population: 76,212 (2010 Census preliminary results);[1] 75,955 (2002 Census).[2]

The destrict extends frae Kitai-gorod northwast tae Belorussky an Savyolovsky Rail Terminals . Its soothren boondary runs ane or twa ceety blocks sooth frae Tverskaya Street; eastren boondary follaes the track o the Neglinnaya River nou flowin in a tunnel unner Samotechnaya Street, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, an Neglinnaya Street.

Tverskoy Destrict hooses State Duma, Federation Cooncil, the Mayor o Moscow, Moscow Ceety Cooncil, an Moscow Polis Heidquairters. It contains Theatre Square, the business destrict o Tverskaya Street wi Pushkin Square, Petrovka Street, Dmitrovka Street, an the wastren pairt o Kuznetsky Most. It haes the heichest concentration o theatres, includin Bolshoi Theatre an the historical Pillar Hall o the Hoose o the Unions.

Historical auries o Patriarshy Ponds, Malaya Bronnaya Street, an maist o Tverskoy Boulevard, while closely associtated wi Tverskaya Street actually belong tae Presnensky Destrict. In 1990s, Tverskoy Destrict includit Kitai-gorod an aw, which is nou a separate territory managit directly bi Central Admeenistrative Okrug.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

This section is based on P. V. Sytin's "History of Moscow Streets"[3]

Auld Muscovy tae 19t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

St. Peter's Cathedral, Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, ca. 1508

Tverskaya Street emergit, as the road tae Tver, in the 12t century. Dmitrovka Street, the road tae Dmitrov, an Petrovka Street, leadin tae Vysokopetrovsky Monastery, date back tae the 14t century.

Till the 1820s, the territory o wha is now Tverskoy Destrict wis separatit frae the Moscow Kremlin bi the Neglinnaya River. Acause o that, the ceety grew primarily eastwaird in the Middle Ages—intae the Red Square an Kitai-Gorod—while the development o wastren territories laggit ahint. A stane brig connectin Tverskaya wi the Red Square wis built in 1595. Urban development in the wastren pairt concentratit alang Tverskaya Street. In the late 15t century, it wis built oot wi kintra-like firthen hames tae Pushkin Square, an bi the end o the 16t century the ceety extendit ayont the present-day Garden Ring. First stane Boyar hooses appeared in dountoun Tverskaya around that time. In 1654, Strastnoy Monastery wis set up in present-day Pushkin Square, an three years later, Odoyevsky faimily set up a stane mansion on the steid o present-day Museum o Modren History (umwhile Museum o Revolution), ayont the Bely Gorod waws. Dmitrovka Street developit rapidly efter the fire o 1648 an aw, as markit bi the ane-o-a-kynd aicht-tentit kirk o Nativity in Putinki. Unuisually for Moscow ootskirts, it wis financit bi the State, as the kirk wis locatit near the Embassy Inn (Посольский двор), hame tae foreign guests.[4]

Kirk o Nativity in Putinki, 1650s

Peter the Great's muive o the naitional caipital tae Saunt Petersburg actually impruivit the leadin role o Tverskaya Street, as it became the main road o ryal journeys atween twa caipitals. Tverskaya acquired Moscow's first triumphal airch (1703, givin name tae Triumphalnaya Square), Gagarin faimily palace (1760s), an Zakhar Chernyshyov mansion (1782); later the seat o Moscow Govrenor, Mossovet, an currently o the Mayor o Moscow (which wis rebuilt in the 1940s). The Fire o 1812 wipit oot walthy mansions an peasant hames alike, sparin anerly the Pushkin Square;[5] Tverskaya wis rebuilt as an upper-cless street an reteened this status iver syne.

Northeastren side o Tverskoy Destrict (east o Petrovka Street) laggit ahint Tverskaya Street an Moscow's east side due tae frequent floods on the Neglinnaya River. First attempt tae control the river, proposed in 1775 bi Matvey Kazakov, materializit in 1792 Neglinnaya Canal, which wis runnin parallel tae the river. Ance the canal wis completit, the auld river bed wis filled wi yird. In 1817–1819, the channel wis covered wi masonry vaults, lockin the stream in an unnergrund tunnel. This creatit Neglinnaya Street, the youngest street inside Boulevard Ring, but did not rule oot futur floods. The maist recent flood, in 1973, led tae complete rebiggin o the agin tunnel (1974–1989, see 1965 flood photos)[6] Anither legacy o the Neglinnaya river survives in Central Baths (1890) an Sandunovsky Baths (1896).[7][8]

Theatre Destrict[eedit | eedit soorce]

Theatre Square, 1930s

The first public theatre, Petrovsky Teatr, wis set up in 1780 bi Inglis enterpeneur Michael Maddox an Prince Urusov in present-day Theatre Square. It burned doun in October 1805 efter 425 successful shows.[9] In 1825, Joseph Bove built a new, lairger Bolshoi Theatre on the same steid. Bi this time, dountoun stretch o the Neglinnaya River wis conteened in an unnergrund tunnel; Peter's bastions o Kitai-gorod wur razit, formin the Theatre Square. In the same 1825, landawner Vargin built Maly Theatre on his awn adjacent lot. For the first five years, the State leased the biggin frae Vargin; he wis later convictit o fraud an the State bocht oot the biggin in 1832.[10] Awners o the opposite laund lots wur obligit tae build hooses exactly like Maly Theatre, formin a perfectly symmetrical neoclessical square wi a parade grund an watter foontain. The symmetry wis eventually ruined bi expansions in 1870s, which addit the third theatre—oreeginally Bronnikov private theatre (nou Molodyozhny Theater).

Anither historical haw, the Assembly o Nobility (nou the Hoose o the Unions) staunds on the corner o Bolshaya Dmitrovka an Okhotny Ryad since 1790. The biggin, designed bi Matvey Kazakov, wis rebuilt externally, but the Pillar Haw inside it, famous for its acoustics, remains close tae Kazakov's oreeginal draft. When the State liftit the ban on private theatres in 1882, tradeetion continued wi Moscow Art Theatre in Kamergersky Lane (1902–1909),[11] Yermolova Theatre (1925), Hermitage (1883), an Aquarium (1898) pairk theatres, etc. Currently, Tverskoy Destrict haes nineteen repertory theatres, the Pillar Haw, Tchaikovsky Haw (1940), an Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard (oreeginally Salamonovsky Circus, 1880, rebuilt in 1987–1989).

Industrial expansion[eedit | eedit soorce]

1907 Communal Club for wirkin teenagers, fundit bi Nikolay Krotov, designed and managit bi Alexander Zelenko an Stanislav Shatsky

Unlike Presnensky or Basmanny Destricts, Tverskoy haes, an ayes haed, vera few industrial properties. Housomeivver, its northren pairt, ayont Garden Ring, developit intae a wirking-class neebourheid in line wi the 19t-century industrialization. Development began in the 18t century wi the Butyrka preeson (rebuilt tae a castle shape in 1800).[12] For the next hundred years, the territories around the prison were filled with farms and small wooden homes. Things changed with the construction of railroads—Smolensk railroad station was built in 1870; current building, known as Belorussky Rail Terminal, was completed in 1909. Savyolovsky Rail Terminal and Moscow Ring Railroad followed in 1900s. Territories near the railroads were quickly used for factories, cheap housing for workers followed soon.

Miusskaya Square, located three blocks from Belorussky Terminal, was a site of unusual urban development, a new center of blue-collar social life. In the course of one decade, 1904–1914, the city and private sponsors built Abrikosova Hospital and Nursery (1906),[13] Junior High School (1912),[14] Shanyavsky University (1913),[15] kindergartens, and trade schools. Development of similar social hubs in other working districts lagged behind and terminated with World War I and Russian Revolution of 1917.

Modren history[eedit | eedit soorce]

Redevelopment o Tverskaya Street began in late 1920s wi infill biggins like Ivan Rerberg's Central Telegraph (1927), an Grigory Barkhin's Izvestia biggin in Pushkin Square (1927). This wis follaeed bi demolition o Okhotny Ryad an Manege Square.

Major reconstruction o Tverskaya Street began in 1937 wi demolition o Strastnoy Monastery an dozens o smawer biggins. Three biggins, includin Savvinskoye Podvorye, Mossovet biggin, an the Eye Clinic, wur spared frae demolition an muivit tae new foondations farther frae the street. As a result, Savvinskoye Podvorye is nou completely lockit inside a 1930s stalinist block. Anither biggin, a print shop at Pushkin Square, wis muivit in the 1970s tae mak wey for Izvestia expansion.[16]

Design o the first stretch o new Gorky Street (the name o Tverskaya syne 1935) wis awairdit tae Arkady Mordvinov, 1929 graduate in airchitectur kent for his ultra-left public statements. Mordvinov pruivit hissel a guid project manager, successfully testin so-cried flow method o fast-track construction. Bi 1941, maist o central Gorky Street wis completit; the rest was built oot efter Warld War II.

Contemporar Auld Believers murals near Belorussky Terminal[17]

In the 1970s, the street acquired Brezhnev-era boxlike biggins o 23-story Intourist Hotel (1970, demolished in 2002[18]) an smawer Minsk Hotel an New Izvestia biggin; less controversial pseudo-Stalinist infill biggins follaeed in 1980s an late 1990s. Housomeivver, ootside Tverskaya, historical biggins an neebourheids wur bein demolished throuoot 1990s an 2000s. Mony blocks in Novoslobodskaya aurie are awready rebuilt in post-2000 heichrise. The ceety haes declared plans tae reconstruct Pushkin Square an Belorussky Terminal Square wi mult-level unnergrund tunnels, shoppin space, an pairkin.[19]

Population o Tverskoy Destrict is tradeetionally affluent an educatit, wi a substantial share o foreigners (most of them are not includit in offeecial population count). Its ethnic mix, chyngin rapidly syne 1980s, haes heich shares o Tatars, Armenies an Jews; ance-strang Ukrainian commonty haes dispersed.[20] Like aw Central Okrug population, Tverskoy residents hae life expectancy o three tae fower years heicher than ither Muscovites, attributit tae better eddication an social status.[21]

Govrenment an infrastructur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Meenistry o Education an Science haes its heid office in the destrict.[22]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Korean Air operates its CIS office in the destrict.[23]

Notable biggins, cultural, an educational facilities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Public transportation access[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года" [Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  2. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  3. Russian: П.В.Сытин, "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948 (Sytin)
  4. Sytin, p.190
  5. Sytin, p.128
  6. Russian, Contractor report: Река Неглинная. История и современность, Мосинжроект, 2005 www.mosinzhproekt.ru
  7. Russian: "Москва начала века", М, ООО "O-Мастер", 2001 ISBN 5-9207-0001-7 стр.184 (Builders of Moscow, p.184). Dates are for extant buildings. Sandunov faimily awned the baths syne 18t century.
  8. Sandunovsky Baths on Neglinnays Street are actually locatit in Meshchansky Destrict (on the eastren side o the street), juist like the Central Bank o Roushie Federation biggin.
  9. German: http://russlandonline.ru
  10. Builders of Moscow, p.184
  11. Builders of Russia, p.187 says "minor construction work proceeded till 1909". Substantial completion is usually dated 1903
  12. Builders of Moscow, p.42
  13. Builders of Moscow, p.329
  14. Builders of Moscow, p.372
  15. Builders of Moscow, p.382
  16. М.Трубилина, "Переезды во сне и наяву", Российская Газета, 1 марта 2004, www.rg.ru
  17. St.Nicholas kirk o Rogozhskoye Auld Believers wis laid doun shortly afore Warld War I an wis no properly completit an consecratit afore the Revolution o 1917. Aw exterior an interior feenished wur made frae scratch in 1990s.
  18. Russian: illustrated contractor's report on demolition www.krealist.ru
  19. English: Pushkin Square Under Threat, The Moscow Times, 24.10.2006 MAPS
  20. Russian: Ethnicity maps in: Вендина, Ольга (ред.) Москва этническая: грозит ли городу геттоизация? "Население и общество", 2004, N177 www.demoscope.ru
  21. Russian: Mortality map: Игнатова, Ольга "Ближе к центру — дольше жизнь. Продолжительность жизни в столице увеличилась на 9 лет", "Российская газета", 19.02.2007 www.rg.ru
  22. "CONTACT." Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved on 1 November 2011. "Address: Tverskaya street, 11, Moscow, 125993" - Address in Russian: "ул.Тверская, д.11, г.Москва, ГСП-3, 125993"
  23. "Company Info / Contact Info." Korean Air. Retrieved on 30 August 2011. "CIS Headquarters Bolshoy Gnezdnykovsky Pereulok D1/2, Moscow, Russia" Address in Russian: "Большой Гнездниковский переулок 1/2 Москва Россия"

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]