Transnistrie

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Coat of arms of Transnistria.svg
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg

Transnistrie, an aa kent as Trans-Dniestr or Transdniestrie is a breakaway territory locatit maistly on a strip o land atween the Dniester River an the eastren Moldovan border tae Ukraine. Since its declaration o unthirldom in 1990, an especially efter the War o Transnistrie in 1992, it is governed de facto as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, an aa kent as "Pridnestrovie"), an unrecognized state which claims the territory tae the east o the river Dniester as well as the ceety o Bender an its surroondin localities locatit on the wast bank. The modren Republic o Moldovae does no recognize the secession an considers territories controlled bi the PMR tae be pairt o Moldovae's autonomous region o Stînga Nistrului ("Left Bank o the Dniester").[1][2][3] Transnistrie's sovereignty is unrecognized bi ony Unitit Naitions member state an it haes nae diplomatic relations wi them.

Efter the dissolution of the Soviet Union, tensions atween the Moldovan government an the breakaway unrecognized state's authorities in Tiraspol escalatit intae a military conflict that stairtit in Mairch 1992 an wis concludit bi a ceasefire in Julie 1992. As pairt o that agreement, a three-pairty (Roushie, Moldovae, Transnistrie) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarized zone, comprisin 20 localities on baith sides o the river. Although the ceasefire haes held, the territory's poleetical status remains unresolved: commonly considered De jure pairt o Moldovae, Transnistrie is a de facto independent state.[4][5][6][7] It is organized as a presidential republic, wi its awn government, parliament, military, polis, postal seestem, an currency. Its authorities hae adoptit a constitution, banner, naitional anthem, an a coat o airms. Housomeivver, follaein a 2005 agreement atween Moldovae an Ukraine, aw Transnistrian companies seekin tae export guids through the Ukrainian border must be registered wi the Moldovan authorities.[8] This agreement wis implementit efter EUBAM stairtit its activity in 2006. Maist Transnistrians are Moldovan citizens,[9] but there are an aa mony Transnistrians wi Roushie an Ukrainian citizenship.

Transnistria is sometimes compared wi ither post-Soviet frozen conflict zones such as Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazie, an Sooth Ossetie.[10][11] The latter twae hae recognised Transnistrie as an independent state an hae established diplomatic relations in return for Transnistrie's recognition o them (see Community for Democracy an Richts o Naitions).[12]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. CIA World factbook Moldova. territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
  2. Herd, Graeme P.; Jennifer D. P. Moroney (2003). Security Dynamics in the Former Soviet Bloc. Routledge. ISBN 041529732X. 
  3. Zielonka, Jan (2001). Democratic Consolidation in Eastern Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019924409X. 
  4. Jos Boonstra, Senior Researcher, Democratisation Programme, FRIDE. Moldova, Transnistria and European Democracy Policies, 2007
  5. Gerald Hinteregger, Hans-Georg Heinrich (editors), Russia — Continuity and Change, Hinteregger, Gerald; Heinrich Hans-Georg (2004). Russia — Continuity and Change. (editors). Springer. p. 174. ISBN 3211223916. 
  6. Rosenstiel, Francis; Edith Lejard, Jean Boutsavath, Jacques Martz (2002). Annuaire Europeen 2000/European Yearbook 2000. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9041118446. 
  7. Barry Bartmann, Tozun. Bahcheli (2004). De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. ISBN 0714654760. 
  8. EUROPEAN UNION BORDER ASSISTANCE MISSION TO MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE (EUBAM), November 2007
  9. Der n-tv Atlas. Die Welt hinter den Nachrichten. Bertelsmann Lexikon Institut. 2008. page 31
  10. OSCE: De Gucht Discusses Montenegro Referendum, Frozen Conflicts, GlobalSecurity.org, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, May 2006
  11. Vladimir Socor, Frozen Conflicts in the Black Sea-South Caucasus Region, IASPS Policy Briefings, 1 March 2004
  12. "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же". Newsru. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2008-08-31.