Tiraspol

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Tiraspol
Municipality
Central street o Tiraspol

Flag

Coat of arms
Tiraspol is located in Transnistria
Tiraspol
Tiraspol
Location in Transnistrie
Coordinates: 46°51′N 29°38′E / 46.850°N 29.633°E / 46.850; 29.633
Kintra Banner o Moldovae Moldovae
Republic Transnistrie Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistrie)
Government
 • Heid o the State Admeenistration o Tiraspol Andrey Bezbabchenko[1]
Population (2013)
 • Total 135,700
Area code(s) + 373 533

Tiraspol (IPA: [tɪˈraspəl]; Roushie: Тирасполь an Ukrainian: Тирасполь) an aa kent as Tyraspol, is the seicont lairgest ceety in Moldovae an is the caipital an administrative centre o the de facto independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistrie). The ceety is locatit on the eastren bank o the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub o licht industry, such as furniture an electrical guids production.

Tiraspol wis foondit bi the Roushie general Alexander Suvorov in 1792.[2] The ceety celebrates its anniversary ivery year on October 14.[3]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The toponym consists o twa wirds: Τύρας, Tyras — the ancient Greek name for the Dniester River, an polis, i.e., a ceety. Tiraspol is translatit tae "rapid ceety".

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Statue o Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol
Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue o Lenin.

Pre-history[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tyras, an aa spelled Tiras, wis a colony o the Greek ceety Miletus, probably foondit aboot 600 BCE, situatit some 10 km. frae the mouth o the Tiras River (Dniester). O nae great importance in early times in the 2nt century BCE, it fell unner the dominion o indigenous keengs whose names appear on its coins. It wis destroyed bi the Getae aboot 50 BCE.

In CE 56 the Romans restored the ceety an made it pairt o the colonial province o Lawer Moesie. A series o its coins exist that feature heids o Roman emperors frae Domitian ( ) tae Alexander Severus ( ). Suin after the time of the latter, the ceety wis destroyed again, this time bi the invasion o the Goths. Its government wis in the hands o five archons, a senate, a popular assembly an a registrar. The images on its coins frae this period suggest a trade in wheat, wine an fish. The few inscriptions extant are maistly concerned wi trade.

Such ancient archeological remains are scanty, as the ceety site wis built ower bi the great medieval fortress o Monocastro or Akkerman.[4] Durin the Middle Ages, the aurie aroond Tiraspol wis a buffer zone atween the Tatars an the Moldavians, an inhabitit bi baith ethnic groups.

Foondation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Roushie Empire conquered its way tae the Dniester River, takin territory frae the Ottoman Empire. In 1792, the Roushie airmy built some fortifications tae guard the wastren border near a Moldavian village named Sucleie. Field Marshall Alexander Suvorov is considered the foonder o modren Tiraspol; his statue is ceety's maist distinctive landmark. The ceety wis named efter Tyras, the Latin name o the Dniester River on which it wis built.

In 1828 the Roushie government established a customs hoose in Tiraspol tae try tae suppress smugglin. The customs hoose wis subordinatit tae the chief o the Odessa customs region. It began operations wi 14 employees. They inspectit shipments o bread, paper, oil, wine, sugar, fruits an ither guids.

20t century - Soviet Tiraspol[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the Roushie Revolution, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic wis created in Ukraine in 1924, wi Balta as its caipital. The republic had Romanian, Ukrainian an Roushie as its offeecial leids. Its caipital wis moved in 1929 tae Tiraspol, which remained the caipital o the Moldavian ASSR till 1940.

In 1940, follaein the secret provisions o the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forced Romanie tae cede Bessarabie. It integratit Tiraspol, till then pairt o the Ukrainian SSR, intae the newly-formed Moldavian SSR. On August 7, 1941, follaein the Axis invasion o the Soviet Union, the ceety wis taken ower bi Romanian troops. Durin the occupation, Tiraspol wis unner Romanian administration. Durin that period amaist aw o its Jewish population perished: they wur murthered in place or deportit tae German Nazi concentration camps, whaur they wur killed.

In 1941 afore the occupation, the newspaper Dnestrovskaya pravda wis foondit bi the Tiraspol Ceety Cooncil o popular deputies. This is the auldest periodical publication in the region. On Aprile 12, 1944, the ceety wis retaken bi the Red Airmy an became again pairt o Moldavian SSR.


Efter independence[eedit | eedit soorce]

On Januar 27, 1990, the citizens in Tiraspol passed a referendum declarin the ceety as an independent territory. The nearbi ceety o Bendery an aa declared its independence frae Moldova. As the Roushie-speakin independence movement gained momentum, some local governments baundit thegither tae resist pressure frae the Moldovan government for nationalization.

On September 2, 1990, Tiraspol wis proclaimed the caipital o the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The new republic wis no offeecially recognized bi Soviet authorities; housomeivver, it received support frae some important Soviet leaders, such as Anatoly Lukyanov. Efter the dissolution o the Soviet Union, the territory east o the Dniester River declared independence as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), wi Tiraspol as its caipital. It wis no recognized bi the internaitional community.

On Julie 1, 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a hie school wi Romanian as its leid o instruction, wis registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration o sax Romanian leid schools haes been the subject o negotiations wi the government since 2000. The tension increased in the simmer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that uised the Moldovan leid in the Laitin script. Accordin tae the offeecial PMR view, this is considered as Romanian. Moldovan, written in the Cyrillic script, is ane o the three offeecial leids in the PMR; Romanian is no. Some economic measures an counter-measures wur taken on baith banks o the Dniester.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tiraspol featurs a humid continental climate that closely borders an oceanic climate. Simmers are mild, wi average monthly temperaturs at aroond 21 °C (70 °F) in Julie an August. Winters are cauld, wi average temperaturs in the cauldest month (Januar) at −2.7 °C (27 °F). Preceepitation is relatively evenly spread throughoot the year, tho thare is a noticeable increase in monthly precipitation in Juin an Julie. Tiraspol on average sees nearly 500 mm (19.69 in) o preceepitation per year.

Climate data for Tiraspol
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
2.3
(36.1)
7.8
(46.0)
16.5
(61.7)
22.5
(72.5)
25.8
(78.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.3
(81.1)
23.0
(73.4)
16.1
(61.0)
8.6
(47.5)
3.3
(37.9)
15.1
(59.2)
Average laich °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−4.3
(24.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
5.1
(41.2)
10.3
(50.5)
13.8
(56.8)
15.5
(59.9)
14.7
(58.5)
10.3
(50.5)
5.3
(41.5)
1.3
(34.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
5.2
(41.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
(1.3)
35
(1.38)
28
(1.1)
35
(1.38)
52
(2.05)
72
(2.83)
63
(2.48)
49
(1.93)
38
(1.5)
26
(1.02)
36
(1.42)
38
(1.5)
495
(19.49)
Avg. precipitation days 11 11 9 10 11 11 10 7 7 7 11 11 116
Source: World Weather Information Service[5]

Fowk an cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Soviet tank monument in Tiraspol
2006: Bus in Tiraspol paintit in the colors o the banner

===Demographics===

In 1989 the ceety haed a population o aboot 190,000 an in 1992 203,000. 41% wur Roushies, 32% Ukrainians an 18% wur Moldovans. As result o the poleetical an economic situation that follaed the proclamation o the independent (unrecognized) Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as lairge Jewish emigration in the early 1990s, the population o the ceety fell belaw its 1989 number an the 2004 Census in Transnistrie puts its current population at 158,069.[6]

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are twa professional fitbaa clubs in Tiraspol, playin in the Divizia Naţională, the top Moldovan fitbaa league: FC Sheriff Tiraspol & FC Tiraspol. Sheriff are the maist successful Moldovan fitbaa club o recent history, winnin ivery league title since the 2000-2001 season, an 6 Moldovan Cups. A third club, CS Tiligul-Tiras Tiraspol, athdrew frae competition prior tae the 2009-2010 season. Tiraspol is hame tae the Sheriff Stadium, the biggest seatit stadium in the region wi a capacity o 14,300.

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tiraspol is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. (Inglis) State Administrations of Cities and Regions of the PMR
  2. About Transdniestra (Russian) World Window NGO. Retrieved 2006, 12-27
  3. Street fairs, celebrations mark Tiraspol's 214th birthday Tiraspol Times, Oct 14, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-20
  4. See E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks (Cambridge, 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, vol. I.
  5. "Weather Information for Tiraspol". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 6 January 2008. 
  6. 2004 Census: PMR urban, multilingual, multicultural, fraePridnestrovie.net.
  7. Trondheims offisielle nettsted - Vennskapsbyer
  8. Article in the German newspaper taz

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Non-Transnistrian links[eedit | eedit soorce]

Transnistrian links[eedit | eedit soorce]