Speyer (formerly known as Spires in English) is a ceety o Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany wi approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Locatit beside the river Rhine, Speyer is 25 km sooth o Ludwigshafen an Mannheim. Foondit bi the Romans, it is ane o Germany's auldest ceeties. The first kent names wur Noviomagus an Civitas Nemetum, efter the Teutonic tribe, Nemetes, settled in the aurie. Aroond the year 500 the name Spira first appeared in written documents. Spire, Spira, an Espira are still names uised for Speyer in the French, Italian, an Spainyie leids.
- In 10 BC, the first Roman military camp is established (situatit atween the toun haw an the episcopal palace).
- In 150, the toun appears as Noviomagus on the warld map o the Greek Ptolemaios
- In 346, a bishop for the toun is mentioned for the first time.
- In 1030, emperor Conrad II stairts the construction o Speyer Cathedral, the day ane o the UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids.
- In 1076, emperor Henry IV embarks frae Speyer, his favourite toun, for Canossa.
- In 1084, establishment o the first Jewish community in Speyer
- In 1294, the bishop lost maist o his previous richts, an frae nou on Speyer is a Free Imperial Ceety o the Holy Roman Empire.
- In 1349, the Jewish community o Speyer is totally wiped oot
- Atween 1527 an 1689, Speyer is the seat o the Imperial Chamber Court.
- In 1526, at the First Diet o Speyer, interim toleration o Lutheran teachin an worship is decreed.
- In 1529, at the Seicont Diet o Speyer, the Lutheran states o the empire protestit against the anti-Reformation resolutions (19 Aprile 1529 Protestation at Speyer, hence the term Protestantism.)
- In 1689, the ceety wis hivily damaged bi French troops.
- Atween 1792 an 1814, Speyer wis unner French jurisdiction.
- In 1816, Speyer became the seat o admeenistration o the Palatinate an o the govrenment o the Rhine Destrict o Bavarie (later cried the Bavarian Palatinate), an remained so til the end o Warld War II.
- Atween 1883 an 1904, the Memorial Kirk is built in remembrance o the Protestation o 1529.
- In 1947, the State Academy o Admeenistrative Science wis foondit (later renamed German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer).
- In 1990, Speyer celebrates its 2000t anniversary.
- Technikmuseum Speyer - Transportation Museum
Twin touns — sister ceeties
Speyer is twinned wi:
- Spalding, Unitit Kinrick, syne 1956
- Chartres, Fraunce, syne 1959
- Kursk, Roushie, syne 1989
- Ravenna, Italy, syne 1989
- Gniezno, Poland, syne 1992
- Yavne, Israel, syne 1998
- Rusizi, Rwanda, syne 2001
- Tønsberg, Norawa
- speyer.de the ceety wabsteid (pairtly in Inglis)
- museum.speyer.de Historical Museum o the Palatinate (Inglis)
- dom-speyer.de wabsteid o Speyer Cathedral (German)
- Model Map o Medieval Speyer
- Speyer, its cathedral an the library o its chapter
- Technical (Transport) Museum
- www.historische-fuehrung-speyer.de: livin history in past times
- www.speyer-tour.de: Guidit tours through Speyer