Yavne

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Yavne
Ebreu transcription(s)
 • Ebreu יַבְנֶה
 • ISO 259 Yabne

Coat o airms o Yavne
Yavne is located in Israel
Yavne
Yavne
Coordinates: 31°53′N 34°44′E / 31.883°N 34.733°E / 31.883; 34.733Coordinates: 31°53′N 34°44′E / 31.883°N 34.733°E / 31.883; 34.733
Destrict Center
Foondit 1949
Government
 • Type Ceety
 • Heid o Municipality Zvi Gov-Ari
Area
 • Total 10,700 dunams (10.7 km2 or 4.1 sq mi)
Population (2009)[1]
 • Total 33,000

Yavne (Ebreu: יַבְנֶה‎‎) is a ceety in the Central Destrict o Israel. Accordin tae the Israel Central Bureau o Statistics (CBS), at the end o 2009 the ceety haed a population o 33,000.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twalt-century tomb in Yavne attributit tae baith Rabbi Gamaliel of Yavne and Abu Hurairah, a Companion o Muhammad.

Yavne wis ane o the major auncient ceeties in the soothren coastal plain, situatit 20 km (12.43 mi) sooth o Jaffa, 15 km (9.32 mi) north o Ashdod, an 7 km (4.35 mi) east o the Mediterranean.[2] Excavations wur carried oot on the auncient raised tel which developed on a natural kurkar hill. The tel wis inhabitit, possibly continuously, till the Breetish Mandate period. Durin some periods, especially the Byzantine period, settlement expandit tae cover pairt o the plain an hills surroondin the tel.[2]

Salvage excavations carried oot in 2001 bi the Israel Antiquities Authority uncovered several burials at the northren fuit o the oreeginal tel. Maist o the burials are datit tae the later Iron Age. Ane burial points tae a late Bronze Age occupation.

The Bible refers tae Yavne'el (Template:Niv) (sometimes transliteratit as Jebneel), a border ceety atween the tribal allotments o Judah an Dan. In Roman times, the ceety wis kent as Iamnia. It wis bequeathed bi Keeng Herod upon his daith tae his sister Salome. Upon her daith it passed tae Caesar Augustus who managed it as a private imperial estate, a status it wis tae maintain for at least a century.[3]

Efter the destruction o the Seicont Temple in 70 CE, Rabban Yochanan Ben Zakkai muivit the Sanhedrin tae Yavne. Some scholars believe the Cooncil o Yavne met there. The Sanhedrin left Yavne for Usha in 80 CE an returned in 116 CE.

Mamluk touer, Yavne

Byzantine period fynds frae excavations include an aqueduct east o the tel, an a kiln.[4][5] In 2007, remains rangin frae the Early Islamic period til the Breetish Mandate period wur uncovered.[6] An additional kiln, an pairt o a commercial/industrial aurie wur uncovered at the wast o the tel in 2009.[7]

The Crusaders cried the ceety Ibelin an built a castle there in 1141. Its namesake noble family, Ibelin, wis important in the Kinrick o Jerusalem an later in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Ibelin wis captured bi Saladin in 1187. Salvage excavations at the wast o the tel unearthed a stash o 53 Crusader coins o the 12t an 13t centuries.[7]

Maqam Abu Hurayra, describit as "ane o the finest domed mausoleums in Palestine", is locatit in Yavne. Syne the 12t century, it haes been kent as a tomb o Abu Hurairah, a companion (sahaba) o the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Efter 1948 the shrine haes been taken ower bi Sephardic Jews who believe that the tomb is the burial place o Rabbi Gamaliel o Yavne.[8]

Afore the establishment o Israel, the Arab veelage o Yibna wis locatit there. In salvage excavations in 2001–2002, remains o the pre-state toun wur uncovered.[9]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yavne rail station.

Accordin tae the Israel Central Bureau o Statistics (CBS), in 2001 the ethnic makeup o the ceety wis Jewish an ithers, athoot significant Arab population. In 2001, the population includit 15,800 men an 16,000 weemen. The population growth rate in 2001 wis 0.5%. 103 new residents muivit tae Yavne in that year.

Income[eedit | eedit soorce]

Synagogue in Yavne.

In 2000, there wur 10,910 salaried wirkers an 966 sel-employed. The mean monthly wage for a salaried wirker wis ILS 5,699. Salaried men haed a mean monthly wage o ILS 7,430 compared tae ILS 4,042 for weemen. The mean income for the sel-employed wis 7,631. 640 citizens received unemployment benefits an 2,396 received an income guarantee.

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Accordin tae CBS figures for 2001, there wur 16 schuils an 7,445 students in Yavne (11 elementary schuils wi 4,037 students an 9 heich schuils wi 3,408 students). 59.6% o 12t graders wur entitled tae a matriculation certificate that year.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Residential neighborhood from the Mamluk Bridge

Major companies based in Yavne include: Ormat Industries, Aeronautics Defense Systems, Avisar an Orbotech.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Maccabi Yavne is the ceety's major fitbaa club. Durin the 1980s the club played in the top diveesion an in 1985 wan the Toto Cup. The day they are in Liga Leumit. an the basketbaw team, Elitzur Yavne play in the Liga Leumit (basketbaw) syne 2007.

Omri Casspi, the first Israeli tae play in the National Basketball Association grew up in the ceety an played for some o its teams.

Notable residents[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yavne is twinned wi:

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Table 3 – Population of Localities Numbering Above 2,000 Residents and Other Rural Population". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rural settlement in the vicinity of Yavneh in the Byzantine period
  3. Kletter, Raz (2004). "Tel Yavne". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 116. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  4. Velednizki, Noy (2004). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 116. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  5. Sion, Ofer (2005). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 117. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  6. Volynsky, Felix (2009). "Tel Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 121. Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Shimron, Ilanit (2009-04-06). "מטמון נדיר נמצא בחפירות ארכיאולוגיות בתל יבנה" [Rare Treasure Found in Excavations at Tel Yavne] (in Hebrew). Ynet.co.il (local). Retrieved 2010-08-08. 
  8. Mayer et al., (1950:22) Cited in Petersen, Andrew (2002). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine: Volume I (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). Oxford University Press. p. 313. ISBN 9780197270110. 
  9. Buchennino, Aviva (2006). "Yavne Final Report". Excavations and Surveys in Israel 118. Retrieved 2010-08-10. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 31°53′N 34°44′E / 31.883°N 34.733°E / 31.883; 34.733{{#coordinates:}}: cannot have more than one primary tag per page