Sopot

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Sopot

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Najmniejsze z wielkich miast
(Smawest o the big ceeties)
Sopot is located in Poland
Sopot
Sopot
Coordinates: 54°26′N 18°33′E / 54.433°N 18.550°E / 54.433; 18.550
Kintra Banner o Poland Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranie
Coonty ceety coonty
Established 8t century
Toun richts 1901
Government
 • Mayor Jacek Karnowski
Area
 • City 17.31 km2 (6.68 sq mi)
Population (31.12.2010)
 • City 38,141
 • Density 2,200/km2 (5,700/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,035,000 (Triceety)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 81-701 to 81-878
Area code(s) +48 58
Caur plates GSP
Website sopot.pl

Sopot [ˈsɔpɔt] ( listen) (Kashubian: Sopòt; German: Zoppot (Ltspkr.png listen)) is a seaside toun in Eastren Pomeranie on the soothren coast o the Easter Seas in northren Poland, wi a population o approximately 40,000.

Sopot is a ceety wi powiat (coonty) status, in the Pomeranie Voivodeship. Till 1999 it wis pairt o the Gdańsk Voivodeship. It lees atween the lairger ceeties o Gdańsk (Danzig) tae the sootheast an Gdynia tae the northwast. The three ceeties thegither mak up the metropolitan agglomeration o the Trójmiasto (Tri-Ceety).

Sopot is a major health-spa an tourist resort destination. It haes the langest firthen pier in Europe, at 515.5 metres, stretchin oot intae the Bay o Gdańsk. The ceety is famous for its Sopot International Song Festival an aw, the lairgest such event in Europe efter the Eurovision Song Contest. Amang its ither attractions is a foontain o bromide spring watter, kent as the "inhalation mushroom".

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name is thocht tae derive frae a auld Slavic wird sopot meanin "stream"[1] or "spring".[2] The same ruit occurs in a nummer o ither Slavic toponyms; it is probably onomatopeic, imitatin the soond o runnin watter - murmur (Šepot). (The day several streams run intae the sea in the aurie o the toun.)

The name is first recordit as Sopoth in 1283 an Sopot in 1291. The German Zoppot is a Germanisation o the oreeginal Slavic name. In the 19t century an in the interwar years the German name wis Polonisit as Sopoty (a plural form, closer tae the German pronunciation).[1] "Sopot" wis made the offeecial Pols name when the toun came again unner Pols rule in 1945.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early history[eedit | eedit soorce]

The aurie o the day's Sopot contains the steid o a 7t-century Slavonic (Pomeranie) stranghauld. Initially it wis a commercial trade ootpost for commerce extendin both up the Vistula river an tae ceeties north athort the Easter Seas. Wi time the significance o the stranghauld diminished an bi the 10t century it wis reducit tae a fishin veelage, eventually abandoned. Housomeivver, a century later the aurie wis settled again an twa veelages wur foondit athin the borders o the day's' ceety: Stawowie an Gręzowo. They wur first mentioned in 1186 as bein grantit tae the Cistercian abbey in Oliwa. Anither o the veelages that constitute the day's Sopot, Świemirowo, wis first mentioned in 1212 in a document bi Mestwin I, who grantit it tae the Premonstratensian (Norbertine) monastery in nearbi Żukowo.

The veelage o Sopot, which later became the namesak for the whole ceety, wis first mentioned in 1283 when it wis grantit tae the Cistercians. By 1316 the abbey haed bocht aw veelages in the aurie an became the awners o aw the aurie o the ceety. Efter the Seicont Peace o Thorn (1466) the aurie wis reincorporatit intae the Kinrick o Poland.

The spa for the ceetizens o Gdańsk haes been active syne the 16t century. Till the end o that century maist noble an magnate faimilies frae Gdańsk built their manor hoosees in Sopot. Durin the negotiations o the Treaty o Oliva Keeng John II Casimir livit in ane o thaim, while Swadish negotiator Magnus de la Gardie residit in anither — it haes been kent as the Swedish Manor iver syne.

Durin the 1733 War o the Pols Succession Imperial Russian troops besiegit the nearby ceety o Gdańsk an a year later luitit an burned the veelage o Sopot tae the grund. Hintle Sopot wad remain abandoned durin an efter the conflict.

Monument tae the Armia Krajowa
Memorial Stane for Danuta Siedzikówna in Sopot

In 1757 an 1758 maist o the ruined manors wur bocht bi the Pomeranie magnate faimily o Przebendowski. General Józef Przebendowski bocht nine o these palaces an in 1786 his widae, Bernardyna Przebendowska (née von Kleist), bocht the remainin twa.

Kinrick o Proushie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sopot wis annexed bi the Kinrick o Proushie in 1772 in the First Pairtition o Poland. Follaein the new laws imponit bi Keeng Frederick the Great, kirk property wis confiscatit bi the state. The veelage wis reconstructit an in 1806 the aurie wis sauld tae the Gdańsk merchant Carl Christoph Wegner.

In 1819 Wegner opened the first public bath in Sopot an treed tae promote the newly established spa amang the inhabitants o Danzig, but the unnertakkin wis a financial failure. Housomeivver, in 1823 Dr. Jean Georg Haffner, a umwhile medic o the French airmy, financit a new bath complex that gained significant popularity. In the follaein years Haffner erectit mair facilities. Bi 1824 a sanatorium wis opened tae the public, as well as a 63-metre pier, cloakrooms, an a pairk. Haffner dee'd in 1830, but his enterprise wis continued bi his stepson, Ernst Adolf Böttcher. The latter continued tae develop the aurie an in 1842 opened a new theatre an sanatorium. Bi then the nummer o tourists comin tae Sopot ivery year haed risen tae amaist 1,200.

In 1870 Sopot saw the openin o its first rail line: the new Danzig-Kolberg rail road that wis later extendit tae Berlin. Guid rail connections addit tae the popularity o the aurie an bi 1900 the nummer o tourists haed reached amaist 12,500 a year.

In 1873 the veelage o Sopot became a admeenistrative centre o the Gemeinde. Suin ither veelages wur incorporatit intae it an in 1874 the nummer o inhabitants o the veelage rose tae ower 2,800.

At the beginnin o the 20t century it wis a favourite spa o Emperor Wilhelm II. The ceety again became a holiday resort for the inhabitants o nearbi Danzig, as well as walthy aristocrats frae Berlin, Warsaw, an Königsberg. Suin efter Warld War I a casino wis opened in the Grand Hotel as the primar source o money for the treasury o the Free Ceety o Danzig.

In 1877 the sel-govrenment o the Gemeinde bocht the veelage frae the stryndants o Dr. Haffner an stairtit its further development. A seicont sanatorium wis constructit in 1881 an the pier wis extendit tae 85 metres. In 1885 the gas wirks wur built. Twa years later tennis courts wur built an the follaein year a horse-racin track wis opened tae the public. Thare wur several facilities built for the permanent inhabitants o Sopot an aw, no anerly for the tourists. Amang those wur twa new kirks: Protestant (17 September 1901) an Catholic (21 Dizember 1901).

On 8 October 1901, Wilhelm II grantit Sopot ceety richts, spurrin further rapid growthe. In 1904 a new balneological sanatorium wis opened, follaeed in 1903 bi a lichthoose. In 1907 new baths sooth o the auld anes wur built in Viking style. In 1909 a new theatre wis opened in the nearbi forest athin the ceety limits, in the place whaur the day the Sopot Festival is held ivery year. Bi 1912 a third complex o baths, sanatoria, hotels, an restaurants wis opened, attractin even mair tourists. Shortly afore Warld War I the ceety haed 17,400 permanent inhabitants an ower 20,000 tourists ivery year.

The Treaty o Versailles[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pier in Sopot. The langest firthen pier in Europe, 450 metres frae the edge o the shore, 650 m total

Follaein the signin o the Treaty o Versailles in 1919, Sopot became a pairt o the Free Ceety o Danzig. Due tae the proximity o the Pols an German borders, the economy o the toun suin recovered. The new casino became ane o the main sources o income o the tiny free-ceety state. In 1927 the ceety authorities rebuilt the Kasino-Hotel, ane o the maist notable landmarks in Sopot the day. Efter Warld War II it wis renamit as the Grand Hotel an continues tae be ane o the maist luxurious hotels in Poland.

A Richard Wagner festival wis held in the nearbi Forest Opera in 1922. The festival's success caused Sopot tae be sometimes referred tae as the "Bayreuth o the North". In 1928 the pier wis extendit tae its present lenth o 512 metres. Syne then it haes remained the langest firthen pier in Europe an ane o the langest in the warld. In the early 1930s the ceety reached its peak o its popularity amang foreign tourists — mair than 30,000 annually (this number does not include tourists from Danzig/Gdansk itself). Housomeivver, bi the 1930s, tensions on the nearbi Pols-German border an the risin popularity o Nazism in Germany saw a decline in foreign tourism; in 1938 local German Nazis burned doun Sopot's synagogue.

Warld War II (1939-1945)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Warld War II breuk oot on 1 September 1939. The follaein day the Free Ceety o Danzig was annexed by Nazi Germany and most of the local Poles, Kashubies, an Jews were arrestit[3] and imprisoned or expelled. Due tae the war, the ceety's tourist industry collapsed. The last Wagner Festival wis held in 1942.

Sopot remained unner German rule till 1945. On 23 Mairch 1945 the Soviet Airmy teuk ower the ceety efter several days o fechtin, in which Sopot lost approximately 10% o its biggins.[4]

As per the Potsdam Conference, Sopot wis incorporatit intae the post-war Pols state. The authorities o Gdańsk Voivodeship wur locatit in Sopot till the end o 1946. Maist o the German inhabitants who haed remained in the ceety efter the evacuation afore the advancin Red Airmy wur suikn tae be forcibly expelled frae their hames, tae mak room for eastren settlers frae Pols auries annexed bi the Soviet Union.

Fowkrepublic o Poland (1946-1989)[eedit | eedit soorce]

St. George's Kirk

Sopot recovered rapidly efter the war. A tramway line tae Gdańsk wis opened, as well as the Schuil o Muisic, the Schuil o Maritime Trade, a librar, an a airt gallery. Durin the ceety presidency o Jan Kapusta the toun opened a annual Airts Festival in 1948. In 1952 the tramways wur replacit bi a hivy-rail commuter line connectin Gdańsk, Sopot an Gdynia. Awtho in 1954 the Schuil o Airts wis muivit tae Gdańsk, Sopot remained an important centre o cultur, an in 1956 the first Pols jazz festival wis held thare (till then jazz haed been banned bi the Communist authorities). This wis the forerunner o the continuin annual Jazz Jamboree in Warsaw.

In 1961 the Sopot International Song Festival wis inauguratit, awtho it wis held in Gdańsk for its first three years – it muivit to its permanent venue at Sopot's Forest Opera in 1964. In 1963 the main street o Sopot (Bohaterów Monte Cassino, "the Heroes o Monte Cassino") wis turned intae a pedestrian-anerly promenade.

New complexes o baths, sanatoria, an hotels wur opened in 1972 an 1975. By 1977 Sopot haed approximately 54,500 inhabitants, the heichest iver in its history. In 1979 the historical toun centre wis declared a naitional heritage centre bi the govrenment o Poland.

Third Pols Republic (1989 onwards)[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1995 the soothren bath an sanatoria complex wur extendit significantly an the Saunt Adalbert spring opened twa years later, as a result in 1999 Sopot regained its offeecial spa toun status.

In 2001 Sopot celebratit the 100t anniversar o its ceety chairter.

Sopot is currently unnergoin a period o intense development, includin the biggin o a nummer o five starn hotels an spa resorts on the watterfront. The main pedestrianisit street, Monte Cassino, haes been extendit bi divertin traffec unnerneath it an aw, meanin the whole street is nou pedestrianisit. Sopot, aside frae Warsaw boasts the heichest property prices in Poland.

Ceety centre
Foontain on the main square (afore the ceety centre redevelopment)
Sheraton Sopot Hotel, ane o the maist famous tourist hotels in the ceety.
Państwowa Galeria Sztuki w Sopocie

Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mayors[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • 1902–1905 dr Volkmar von Wurmb
  • 1905–1908 dr Johannes Kollath
  • 1908 Baron von Gagern
  • 1908–1919 Max Woldmann
  • 1919–1930 dr Erich Laue
  • 1930–1934 dr Hermann Lewerenz
  • 1934–1936 dr Wilhelm Fließbach
  • 1936–1941 Erich Temp
  • 1942 Gerchard Koß
  • 1942 Schröder
  • 1942–1945 ?
  • 1945 Henryk Michniewicz
  • 1945 Tadeusz Soboń
  • 1946 Antoni Turek
  • 1946–1948 Leonard Wierzbicki
  • 1948 Srebrnik
  • 1948 Bolesław Śliwiński
  • 1948–1949 Jan Kapusta
  • 1949–1950 Piotr Novak
  • 1950–1952 Alfred Müller
  • 1952–1954 Hieronim Kozieł
  • 1954–1958 Roman Kosznik
  • 1958–1965 Stanisław Podraszko
  • 1965–1969 Zenon Bancer
  • 1969–1978 Bolesław Robakowski
  • 1978–1981 Lech Świątkowski
  • 1981–1984 Cezary Dąbrowski
  • 1984–1990 Andrzej Plona
  • 1990–1992 Henryk Ledóchowski
  • 1992–1998 Jan Kozłowski
  • 1998–present Jacek Karnowski

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety is covered bi baith the Gdynia an Gdańsk municipal bus lines, the regional commuter rail line (wi three stops in the ceety: Sopot Wyścigi, Sopot, an Sopot Kamienny Potok), an the Pols naitional railwey, PKP. Sopot is ane o fower Pols touns tae hae trolleybuses. The ithers are Lublin, Tychy an Gdynia. - [1]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw: Sports in Triceety

Thare are many popular profeesional sports teams in Sopot an the tri-ceety aurie. The maist popular in Sopot the day is probably basketbaw thanks tae the award-winning Asseco Gdynia. Amateur sports are played bi thoosans o Sopot ceetizens, as well as in schuils o aw levels (elementar, seicontar, an varsity). Sopot will host the IAAF World Indoor Championships in 2014.

  • Asseco Gdynia - men's basketbaa team, Pols Champion 2004, 1st place in Era Basket Liga, will play in basketbaw Euroleague
  • Idea Prokom Open - ATP an WTA tennis tournament held in August.
  • Ogniwo Sopot - [MKS Ogniwo Sopot] is a rugby club, foondit in 1965. Syne the 80's, Ogniwo is ane o the best Pols rugby teams. They wur undefeatit syne 1989 tae 1993, wi Edward Hodura as a coach.
  • Klub Piłkarski Sopot (KP Sopot) – fitbaa club foondit in 1987. In 2007/08 saison it wan the Regional Pols Cup.[2]
  • PDP Karlikowo Sopot - Men's fitbaa club

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Major corporations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heicher education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns - Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sopot is twinned with:

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 www.sopot18.webpark.pl
  2. Maria Malec, Słownik etymologiczny nazw geograficznych Polski
  3. amk (2009-12-25). "O sopockiej Polonii po latach". rp.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  4. The History of Sopot

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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