Papaya

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Papaya
Papaya tree an fruit, frae Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Scienteefic classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Caricaceae
Genus: Carica
Species: C. papaya
Binomial name
Carica papaya
L.
Papaya ootput in 2005, shown as a percentage o the tap producer, Brazil (1.7 megatonnes)

The papaya /pəˈpə/ or /pəˈpɑːjə/ (frae Carib via Spanyie), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit o the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica o the plant faimily Caricaceae. It is native tae the tropics o the Americaes, perhaps frae soothren Mexico an neighbourin Central Americae.[1] It wis first cultivatit in Mexico several centuries afore the emergence o the Mesoamerican classical ceevilizations.

The papaya is a lairge, tree-like plant, wi a single stem growin frae 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, wi spirally arranged leaves confined tae the tap o the trunk. The laicher trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves an fruit wur borne. The leaves are lairge, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, wi seven lobes. Unusually for such lairge plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flouers are similar in shape tae the flouers o the Plumeria, but are much smawer an wax-like. Thay appear on the axils o the leaves, maturin intae lairge fruit - 15–45 cm (5.9–17.7 in) lang an 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe when it feels saft (as saft as a ripe avocado or a bit safter) an its skin haes attained an amber tae orange hue.

Carica papaya wis the first transgenic fruit tree tae hae its genome deciphered.

Common names[eedit | eedit soorce]

Carica papaya plants an their fruits are kent bi different names aroond the Inglish-speakin warld:

  • North Americae an Belize: papayas
  • Unitit Kinrick: The fruit is usually cried papaya but is also kent as papaw or pawpaw [2]
  • Africae: pawpaw or papaw [3][4]

Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]

A papaya seedling.

Originally frae soothren Mexico (particularly Chiapas an Veracruz), Central Americae, an northren Sooth Americae, the papaya is nou cultivatit in maist tropical kintras. In cultivation, it graws rapidly, fruitin within three years. It is, however, heichly frost-sensitive, limitin its production tae tropical lands.

Pests an diseases[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: Leet o papaya diseases

Papayas are susceptible tae the papaya ringspot virus (PRV), which causes prematur moltin an malformation o the leaves.[5] In the 1990s, the virus threatened tae wipe oot Hawaii's papaya industry completely.

The papaya is also susceptible tae the fruit flee, a smaa, wasp-like insect that lays its eggs in young fruit.

Cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yellae flesh papayas, wi decorative flouers
Papaya wi reid flesh

Twa kinds o papayas are commonly grawn. Ane haes sweet, reid (or orangish) flesh, an the ither haes yellae flesh; in Australie, these are cried "reid papaya" an "yellae papaw", respectively.[6] Either kynd, picked green, is cried a "green papaya."

The lairge-fruitit, reid-fleshed 'Maradol', 'Sunrise', an 'Caribbean Reid' papayas eften sauld in US mercats are commonly grawn in Mexico an Belize.[7]

In 2011 Philippine researchers reportit thay bi intergeneric hybridisation atween carica papaya an Vasconcellea quercifolia thay haed developed conventionally bred, nongenetically engineered papaya that are provin resistant tae PRV.[8]

Genetically modified cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

In response tae the PRV ootbreak in Hawaii, genetically altered papaya wur generated an broucht tae mercat (includin 'SunUp' an 'Rainbow') that hae some papaya ringspot virus (PRV) DNA incorporatit intae the DNA o the plant are resistant tae PRVs.[5][9] This wis so successful that bi 2010, 80% o Hawaiian papaya plants wur genetically modified.[10][11]

Uises[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas can be uised as a fuid, a cuikin aid an in tradeetional medicine. The stem an bark mey be uised in rope production.

Meat tenderizin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Baith green papaya fruit an the tree's latex are rich in papain, a protease uised for tenderizin meat an ither proteins. Its ability tae break doun tough meat fibers wis uised for thoosands o years bi indigenous Americans. It is nou includit as a component in powdered meat tenderizers.

Nutrients, phytochemicals an culinary practices[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 179 kJ (43 kcal)
Carbohydrates 10.82 g
- Succars 7.82 g
- Dietary fiber 1.7 g
Fat 0.26 g
Protein 0.47 g
Vitamin A equiv. 47 μg (6%)
- beta-carotene 274 μg (3%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 89 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.023 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.027 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.357 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.191 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6 0.038 mg (3%)
Folate (vit. B9) 38 μg (10%)
Vitamin C 62 mg (75%)
Vitamin E 0.3 mg (2%)
Vitamin K 2.6 μg (2%)
Calcium 20 mg (2%)
Iron 0.25 mg (2%)
Magnesium 21 mg (6%)
Manganese 0.04 mg (2%)
Phosphorus 10 mg (1%)
Potassium 182 mg (4%)
Sodium 8 mg (1%)
Zinc 0.08 mg (1%)
Lycopene 1828 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Papaya fruit is a soorce o nutrients such as provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, folate an dietary fiber. Papaya skin, pulp an seeds also contain a variety o phytochemicals, includin lycopene an polyphenols. In preliminary research, danielone, a phytoalexin foond in papaya fruit, shawed antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloesporioides, a pathogenic fungus o papaya.[12]

Ripe papaya fruits in tree

The ripe fruit o the papaya is usually eaten raw, withoot skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit can be eaten cuiked, usually in curries, salads, an stews. Green papaya is uised in Sootheast Asie cuikin, baith raw an cuiked.[13] In Thai cuisine, papaya is uised tae mak Thai salads such as som tam and Thai curries such as kaeng som when still not fully ripe. In Indonesian cuisine, the unripe green fruits an young leaves are boiled for uise as pairt o lalab salad, while the flouer buds are sautéed an stir-fried wi chillies an green tomatoes as Minahasan papaya flouer vegetable dish. Papayas hae a relatively heich amoont o pectin, which can be uised tae mak jellies. The smell o ripe, fresh papaya flesh can strike some fowk as unpleasant.

The black seeds o the papaya are edible an hae a sharp, spicy taste. Thay are sometimes groond an uised as a substitute for black pepper.

In some pairts o Asie, the young leaves o the papaya are steamed an eaten like spinach.

In some pairts o the warld, papaya leaves are made intae tea as a treatment for malaria.[14] Antimalarial an antiplasmodial activity haes been notit in some preparations o the plant,[14] but the mechanism is nae unnerstood an no treatment method based on these results haes been scientifically proven.[14]

Yerbal medicine[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papaya is mercatit in tablet fairm tae remedy digestive problems.

Papain is also applied topically in kintras where it graws for the treatment o cuts, rashes, stings an burns. Papain ointment is commonly made frae fermented papaya flesh, an is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford wis treatit for a ruptured disc incurred durin filmin o Indiana Jones an the Temple o Doom bi papain injections.[15]

Allergies an side effects[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unripe green papayas

Papaya is frequently uised as a hair conditioner, but should be uised in smaa amoonts. Papaya releases a latex fluid when nae quite ripe, which can cause irritation an provoke allergic reaction in some fowk.

The latex concentration o unripe papayas are speculatit tae cause uterine contractions, which mey lead tae a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in large doses hae a contraceptive effect on rats an monkeys, but in smaw doses hae no effect on the unbairn ainimals.

Excessive consumption o papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellowin o soles an palms, which is itherwise harmless. However, a very lairge dose would need tae be consumed; papaya contains aboot 6% o the level o beta carotene foond in carrots (the maist common cause o carotenemia).[16]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Papaya". 1987. 
  2. [1]
  3. Merriam-Webster Online: pawpaw
  4. Delbridge, A., and J. R. L. Bernard. 1988 The Macquarie Concise Dictionary. The Macquarie Library: Sydney.
  5. 5.0 5.1 http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/botany/botany_map/articles/article_03.html
  6. "Papaya Vs Papaw". News (15 April 2005). Horticulture Australia. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  7. Sagon, Candy (13 October 2004). "Maradol Papaya". Market Watch (13 Oct 2004) (The Washington Post). Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  8. "Euphytica, Volume 181, Number 2". SpringerLink. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0388-z. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  9. Hawaiipapaya.com
  10. Ronald, Pamela and McWilliams, James (14 May 2010) Genetically Engineered Distortions The New York Times, accessed 1 October 2012
  11. http://www.harc-hspa.com/publications/TF5.pdf
  12. Danielone, a phytoalexin from papaya fruit. Echeverri F., Torres F., Quinones W., Cardona G., Archbold R., Roldan J., Brito I., Luis J.G., and LahlouU E.-H., Phytochemistry, 1997, vol. 44, no2, pp. 255-256, INIST:2558881
  13. Green Papaya Salad Recipe - ThaiTable.com
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Titanji, V.P.; Zofou, D.; Ngemenya, M.N. (2008). "The Antimalarial Potential of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in Cameroonian Folk Medicine". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 5 (3): 302–321. PMC 2816552. PMID 20161952. 
  15. Entry on Harrison Ford's back treatment.
  16. "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  17. Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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