Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Italian pronunciation: [beˈniːto musːoˈliːni]; 29 Julie 1883 – 28 Aprile 1945) wis an Italian politeecian who led the Naitional Fascist Pairty an is creditit wi being ane o the key figures in the creation o Fascism.
Mussolini became the 40t Prime Meenister o Italy in 1922 an began uisin the title Il Duce bi 1925. Efter 1936, his offeecial title wis "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Heid o Government, Duce o Fascism, an Foonder o the Empire". Mussolini an aa creatit an held the supreme military rank o First Marshal o the Empire alang wi Keeng Victor Emmanuel III o Italy, which gave him an the Keeng joint supreme control ower the military o Italy. Mussolini remained in pouer till he wis replaced in 1943; for a short period efter this till his daith, he wis the leader o the Italian Social Republic.
Mussolini wis amang the foonders o Italian Fascism, which includit elements o naitionalism, corporatism, naitional syndicalism, expansionism, social progress an anti-communism in combination wi censorship o subversives an state propaganda. In the years follaein his creation o the Fascist ideology, Mussolini influenced, or achieved admiration frae, a wide variety o poleetical figures.
Amang the domestic achievements o Mussolini frae the years 1924–1939 wur: his public wirks programmes such as the tamin o the Pontine Mairshes, the improvement o job opportunities, an public transport. Mussolini an aa solved the Roman Question bi concludin the Lateran Treaty atween the Kinrick o Italy an the Holy See. He is an aa creditit wi securin economic success in Italy's colonies an commercial dependencies.
On 10 Juin 1940, Mussolini led Italy intae World War II on the side o the Axis despite initially sidin wi Fraunce against Germany in the early 1930s. Believin the war woud be short-lived, he declared war on Fraunce an Great Breetain in order tae gain territories in the peace treaty that woud soon follae.
Three years later, Mussolini wis deposed at the Grand Cooncil o Fascism, promptit bi the Allied invasion o Italy. Soon efter his incarceration began, Mussolini wis rescued frae prison in the darin Gran Sasso raid bi German special forces. Follaein his rescue, Mussolini heidit the Italian Social Republic in pairts o Italy that wur no occupied bi Allied forces. In late Aprile 1945, with total defeat loomin, Mussolini attemptit tae escape tae Swisserland, ae tae be quickly captured an summarily executit near Lake Como bi Italian partisans. His body wis then taken tae Milan whaur it wis hung upside doun at a petrol station for public viewin an tae provide confirmation o his demise.
- Image Description: Propaganda poster of Benito Mussolini, with caption "His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Leader of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire...".
- Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6.
- Warwick Palmer, Alan (1996). Who's Who in World Politics: From 1860 to the Present Day. Routledge. ISBN 0415131618.
- Humphrys, Julian (June 2010). BBC History magazine. Bristol Magazines Ltd. ISSN 14698552.
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