Penda o Mercia

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Stained gless windae, depictin Penda's daith at the Battle o the Winwaed, Worcester Cathedral.
Keeng o Mercia
Ringc.626 – 655 AD
Dee'd15 November 655 AD
HooseHoose o Mercia

Penda (dee'd November 15, 655)[1] wis a 7t-century Keeng o Mercia, a kinrick in whit is the day the Inglis Midlands. A pagan at a tyme whan Christianity wis takkin haud in mony o the Anglo-Saxon kinrick, Penda pairteecipatit in the defait o the pouerfu Northumbrian keeng Edwin at the Battle o Hatfield Chase in 633.[2] Nine years later, he defaited an felled Edwin's eventual successor, Oswald, at the Battle o Maserfield; frae this pynt he wis liklin the maist pouerfu o the Anglo-Saxon rulers o the tyme. He defaited the Aest Angles, cawed the king o Wessex intil "fleme" for three years, an continued tae wauge weir agin the Bernicians o Northumbria. Thirteen years aifter Maserfield, he tholed a grushin defait an wis felled at the Battle o the Winwaed in the coorse o a hinmaist campaign agin the Bernicians.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Manuscript A o the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gies the year as 655. Bede an aa gies the year as 655 an specifees a date, 15 November. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) pit forwart the theory that Bede begoud his year in September, an consequently November 655 wad actually faw in 654; Frank Stenton an aa dated events accordinly in his Anglo-Saxon England (1943).1 Ithers hae acceptit Bede's gien dates as meaning whit thay appear tae mean, conseederin Bede's year tae hae begun on 25 December or 1 Januar (see S. Wood, 1983: "Bede's Northumbrian dates again"). The historian D. P. Kirby suggestit the year 656 as a possibility, alangside 655, in case the dates gien bi Bede are aff bi ane year (see Kirby's "Bede and Northumbrian Chronology", 1963). The Annales Cambriae gies the year as 657. Annales Cambriae at Fordham University Archived 2010-12-04 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Bede gies the year o Hatfield as 633 (along with the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle); if the theory that Bede's years begoud in September is employed (see Note 1), then October 633 wad actually be in 632, an this datin haes whiles been observed bi modren historians sic as Stenton (see Note 8). Kirby suggestit that the year mey hae actually been 634, accoontin for the possibility that Bede's dates are ane year early (see Note 1). Bede gies the speceefic date o Hatfield as 12 October; Manuscript E o the Chronicle (see Note 10) gies it as 14 October.