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Haundbaa (itherwise spelt haundbaw or haundba, inglis: handball) is a name for several different sports played aroond the warld. These include European, or 'team' haundbaa, an' waw-based versions like American Haundbaa an' its variant, Chinese Haundbaa, Australian Haundbaa, Gaelic Haundbaa, Welsh Haundbaa, an' mair.

European haundbaa

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European haundbaa (also kent as team haundbaa or Olympic haundbaa) is a team gemme in which twa teams o' seven players each (sax ootcourt players an' a goalkeeper) pass a ba' using their haunds wi' the aim o' throwin' it intae the goal o' the opposin' team. A standard match consists o' twa periods o' 30 meenits, an' the team that scores mair goals wins.

Modern haundbaa is played on a court o' 40 by 20 metres (131 by 66 ft), wi' a goal in the middle o' each end. The goals are surrounded by a 6-metre (20 ft) zone whaur only the defendin' goalkeeper is allowed; goals maun be scored by throwin' the ba' frae ootside the zone or while "divin'" intae it. The sport is aften played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms o' field haundbaa, Czech haundbaa (which were mair common in the past) an' beach haundbaa. The gemme is fast an' high-scoring: professional teams noo typically score atween 20 an' 35 goals each, tho' lower scores werenae uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted for the defenders tryin' tae stop the attackers frae approachin' the goal. Nae protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear saft protective bands, pads an' mouth guards.

The modern set o' rules wis published in 1917 by Karl Schelenz, Max Heiser, an' Erich Konigh, on 29 October in Berlin, which is seen as the date o' birth o' the sport. The rules hae had several revisions since. The first official haundbaa match wis played in 1917 in Germany. Karl Schelenz modified the rules in 1919. The first international gemmes were played (under thae rules) wi' men in 1925 (atween Germany an' Belgium) an' wi' wimen in 1930 (atween Germany an' Austria).

Men's haundbaa wis first played at the Olympics in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin outdoors, an' the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich indoors; haundbaa has been an Olympic sport since then. Wimen's haundbaa wis added at the 1976 Summer Olympics.

The rules are as follows. Twae teams o' seven players (sax court players plus yin goalkeeper) tak the court an' attempt tae score points by puttin' the gemme ba' intae the opposin' team's goal. In handlin' the ba', players are subject tae the followin' restrictions:

Efter receivin' the ba', players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ba'.

Players arenae allowed tae touch the ba' wi' their feet. The goalkeeper is the anely player allowed tae use their feet, but anely within the goal area.

If possessin' the ba', players must dribble (similar tae a basketball dribble), or can tak up tae three steps for up tae three seconds at a time withoot dribbling.

Nae attackin' or defendin' players ither than the defendin' goalkeeper are allowed tae touch the flair o' the goal area (within sax metres o' the goal). A shot or pass in the goal area is valid if completed afore touchin' the flair. Goalkeepers are allowed ootside the goal area, but arenae allowed tae cross the goal area boundary wi' the ba' in their haunds.

The ba' maynae be passed back tae the goalkeeper when they are positioned in the goal area.

Notable scorin' opportunities can occur when attackin' players jump intae the goal area. For example, an attackin' player may catch a pass while launchin' toward the inside the goal area, an' then shoot or pass afore touchin' the flair. Doublin' occurs when a divin' attackin' player passes tae anither divin' teammate.

Chinese haundbaa

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Chinese haundbaa is a furm o' American haundbaa that's popular on the streets o' New York City, Philadelphia, an' Bridgewater durin' the 1950s, '60s, '70s, an' '80s an' still played the day, maistly in New York City, Philadelphia, an' San Diego. Different variations are played aroond the warld. Its definin' feature is that, unlike tradicional haundbaa, in Chinese or indirect haundbaa, for a shot tae be valid, the ba' maun hit the grund afore it hits the waw. Because it's aften played wi' lairge or irregular numbers o' players, it's considered a mair social an' accessible alternative tae conventional American haundbaa, especially in schoolyard settins.

Oreegin o' name

The name "Chinese" haundbaa is American in oreegin. Like the terms "Chinese checkers" or "Chinese fire drill", the name identifies it as an "exotic" or confusin' variation on somethin' mair familiar tae Westerners.

Gameplay an' Rules

Chinese haundbaa can be played by ony number o' players that can comfortably fit on the court at aince. In the United States, it's traditionally played wi' either a "Spaldeen" pink bouncy ba' or an American haundbaa ba', whereas Chinese-style Australian variations conventionally use tennis balls, an' ither ba' options are possible. It's usually played on American haundbaa courts, but is also aften played wi' twa opposin' waws ("hallway" or "mini-court" style), or three adjacent waws. For aw shots, there are several rules that must be followed for the play tae be valid. The ba' may be hit only ance, withoot bein' "caught" or "handled", an' efter hittin' the waw, its first bounce must land within the bounds o' the court, same as in American Haundbaa. However, efter bein' struck an' afore hittin' the waw, it maun hit the flair.

1v1 duels or American-style 2v2 can be played, wi' teams alternatin' hittin' the ba' an' points awarded whenever the opposin' team fails tae mak' a valid return. However, it's usually played wi' lairger numbers, in an elimination style. If a player mak's an invalid return, they are "out", an' exit the court. Whae'er is closest tae the ba', ither than the previous hitter, is expected tae hit the ba'. If the ba' is allowed tae bounce twice withoot bein' hit or "watermeloned", whae'er wis nearest the ba' is declared oot. The person who had hit the ba' last normally gets the next serve, but as a primarily social gemme, speed o' play an' flow are paramount, sae whae'er collects the ba' may serve themsels tae save time. This process continues until only ane player remains, wha is crowned the winner. Everyone may then reenter the court for a new round, wi' the reigning champion gettin' the first serve o' the next match.

In New York variations o' the sport, "watermelons" are a risky alternative tae hittin' the ba'. When the ba' has bounced ance, players may duck under the ba' (usually their heid is required tae pass directly under the ba's flight path) tae complete a watermelon. The ba' is then allowed tae bounce an additional time afore anither player maun hit it, or watermelon it again. If ony pairt o' the player's body hits the ba', or the ba's next bounce lands oot o' bounds, the watermelon is invalid an' the player wha attempted it is oot. Watermelons can serve as a guid way tae force yin's opponent tae the back o' the court in 1v1s, tae slow doon the speed o' play, or tae catch opponents aff-guard for an easy oot. Tae prevent unfair aces, serves are aften required tae be "melonable", meanin' someone could feasibly fit their heid under the ba', an' the ba's second bounce, were it tae be "watermeloned", would be in-bounds. Serves may be hit or thrown.

Chinese haundbaa, like its American relative an' ither playground gemmes, is generally self-regulatit. This means rules may be customized for ony given match by those playin'. In cases whaur the validity o' a shot is disputed or there is disagreement ower wha wis closest tae a ba' that was left tae bounce twice, those ootside the dispute may decide the ca', or the round is replayed. Refereein' is democratic, an' if maist players on the court agree on a decision, the player in question is expected tae accept it. There is aften room for debate or talk-back, colloquially kent as "fishmongering" amang New York's Upper East Side Chinese Haundbaa communities, but wi' rounds lastin' only a few minutes, flow o' play is prioritized ower prolonged discussion.