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Garden at the Schultenhof in Mettingen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Gairdenin is the practice o growin an cultivatin plants as pairt o horticultur. In gardens, ornamental plants are eften grown for their flouers, foliage, or oweraw appearance; uiseful plants, such as ruit vegetables, leaf vegetables, fruits, an yerbs, are grown for consumption, for uise as dyes, or for medicinal or cosmetic uise. A gairdener is someane who practices gairdenin, either professionally or as a hobby. Gairdenin is considered tae be a relaxin activity for mony fowk.

Aerlie Heistorie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Radio carbon datin frae the region o The Levantine Corridoor or The Aurea frae The Deid Sea tae The Damascus Basin lats us ken o the cultivatin an domesticatin o plaunts somewey aboot 9000 BC. Humans cultivatit bi haund uisin wuiden sticks, an no wi the plou, an wi evidence pyntin tae sic plaunts bein growne as cereal an pulses it is aiblins better cryed fairmin nor gairdenin i the modren meanin.

Whit we wad cry a Gairden nooadays, an whaur the practice o gairdenin as we ken it the day haed its springheid is Egyp some 4000 year syne. [1]Ower the time sen thae days monie a style haes spreid oot an athort the warld tae adapt tae sindrie airts an climates,tho the main structur o things haes bade the same.

Egyptians haed Gairdens i the exack like sense o whit we cry a Gairden the day ,tho the auldest gairden pattren kent tae archeologie is aiblins the ane at Passargadae athin modren day Iran.

Anent the modren style o Gairdenin kythin in Europe we hae the auldest ensaumples at Pompeii i Italy. Tho maist weill kent for the muckle volcanic bluiterin at befawn the fowk o Pompeii bi Mount Vesuvius i 79 AD we hae frae thon period aroon 500 domesticatit Gairdens preserred.[2]

Reconstruction o the gairden o the Hoose o the Vettii in Pompeii

Auld Warld Gairdenin[eedit | eedit soorce]

The airt an practice o Gairdenin micht hae kythed frae whan humans stairtit tae cultivate vegetables raither nor feild crops. Maistlins vegetable gairdens war steidit close tae the hame acause o the need for watter an for tae tak guid care o the plaunts.Aften sic a gairden aurea wad be rinkit in some wey for tae fend it frae livestock.

Tho firstlins fowk wad hae a need tae be sel staundin wi fuid frae the gairden tae feed thairsels,in time the gairden wad hae ontaen a wey tae eik land tae yer ain grunnd.[3]

Oot throu the auld warld the'r evidence athin leiterature,airt an archeologie o gairdenin frae Egyp,Mesopotania,Greece ,Roum an The Byzantine Society alang wi aerlie Islam.

Gairdeners frae Kintraes at haed het simmer climates ontaen meisures tae evyte the scaudin o plaunts frae the Sun,maist aften bi plauntin tree's at wad gie oot muckle leaf spreid an sicwyce perteck an gie needit shade tae monie a bruckle plaunt.Wi this tree's becam a gey important pairt o gairdenin.

Athin ilk ane o the Auld Warld societies an culturs we can finnd a rowth o dieties at wad watch ower fertility an agticulture ,an alsae anes airtit taewards plaunts an crops.

Monie a myth is thirled tae tane or tither parteiclar feature o plaunts , the like o The Greek tales o Daphne or Narcissus or The Mesopotanian tale o the tamarisk an the date palm.

Legends anent gairdens o undeemous bewté war fell popular i the auld warld,whuther its The Gairden o Eden i Christianity or The Gairden o Eram athin Islam ,maist auncient societies haed a tale o sic a paradise gairden.Aft times gairdeners wad haud thaur ain gairdens in compear wi thon mythical anes.

Sib tae whit we see wi modren gairdeners The Rose wes a flooer o gret admeiration amang sic societies, an alang wi The Lily, Sweet Violet an Narcissus war thocht as the maist popular.

The climate o sindrie lands wad hae airtit ilk people tae whit plaunts an Vegetables war maist suitit tae the aurea,an ower the year hunders monie culturs war tae spreid a fouth o varieties athort thair province an Impire.

Aerlie Islamic Gairdeners wad inbring plaunts tae sooth Spangie an sae we haed an innin tae fremmit species i medeival Europe.

Medieval Gairdens an Gairdenin[eedit | eedit soorce]

The culture o gairdenin i this period is like tae hae been maist seen athin Monasteries an Castles. Foondit i the 6t year hunders Monte Casino Abbey i Campagnia Italy wi its gairden haes becum an ensaumple tae be follaed oot through Wastren an Central Europe. Sib til thon is the design funnd wi the presserred plan o the gairdens o the 9t century Abbey o Gall [4]in Switzerlaund.

The Plan o St Gall, the ae survivin major architectural drawin frae the Aerlie Middle Ages
The diagram version o the Plan

Wi the needcessity for a Monasterie tae be self staundin Orchards an vegetable gairdens wad hae been o gret import .

Athin the monasterie, an Infirmary gairden wad hae been uised for tae growe herbs at wad gie heal tae onie smit or skaith at micht befaw the monks o a parteiclar Abbey, forby gien help tae the community ootby.

Whit is seen frae the plans anent St. Gall is at thir gairdens war ootset wi a rectangle shape wi narra paths atween growein plots at wad eith allou the ingaitherin o the growne crop. Tho substenance an haelth wes the main raeson for sic gairdens wi the growein o sich vegetables the like o cabbage,ingans an radishes the releigious gate o St.Benedict wad hae been follaed bi Monks at alloued thaim tae ontak the manual labour side o monastic life.

Gairdens an Gairdenin i Medieval Scotland[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sib tae European Gairdens,medieval gairdens in Scotland war mainly uised for tae hail smits an seickness,hooanever,wi The Kirk an Lairds the gairden wes eikit til tae becum a thochtie place whaur a bodie micht gie ower tae thinkin upo gien aid tae savin thair sowels.[5]

Hooses o the Nabs an Lairds in the era in Scotland war aften ramforced in some wey an wi sich aftimes the gairden wes creatit athin a field ootby frae the main steid at wad gie peace frae the thrang.

The rinkit waa gairden wes seen aw ower Scotland,maistlins adae wi the climate hereanent at wes conseidered caulder an land at alloued depradation o crops bi deer an rabbits.

Wi sic like gairdens allouin for the betterment o syle an the jaellous like pride o the Lairds assuirin at onlie sich as thairsels gat benefit frae it,aftimes a a micro climate wes creatit that oot gied vegetables,fruits an herbs at war o a better staundard nor the common fowk haed.

Taewards the late medieval years hedgin wes inpit tae the gairdens o Abbeys ,an lairger Nab faimlies betimes biggit a maze at wad hae a speiritual an thochtie gate tae hit ,whaur aw the fankles an deid ennds war meant tae hae ye speir yersel anent God an the Scripturs.

Inbrocht frae Europe wes the idea that the gairden wes for pleisure alsae, an no juist for substenance. The kythin o sic ideas brocht furth a wey o thinkin at wes tae blume wi the aerlie rennaisance.

Wi the rennaisance in Scotland, maist gairdens o pleisure war gotten awa wi an onlie smaw pairts o them can be funnd the day. Pentins an drawins are maistweys whit we hae nooadays o sich medieval Gairdens,tho twa sic Medieval wawed Gairdens bide hail. Ane at Cawdor Castle in Nairn an tither at Edzell Castle Angus.

The waa gairden o Edzell Castle, seen frae the uppermaist fluir o the touer hoose

Aerlie Modren Era[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Auld Alliance atween Scotland an Fraunce haed inbrocht monie a Gairdenin style o gret importance tae wir Kintrae that war parteiclarly wrocht tae wir ain Scots climate.

The maist faur kent gairden design wes that o The Gairden o Versaille. Buiks anent gairdenin frae Europe an Ingland haed kythed in Scotland an the buik cryed Scots Gardnerwes ootset i 1683 bi John Reid , a respeckit gairdener o the day that haed wirkit at Niddrie Castle ,Hamilton Castle an Drummond Castle aforehaund.

He haed borraed frae an owersettin bi John Evelyn o Nicholas de Bonnefon's Le Jardinier François, an adaptit his ideas tae a Scottis Climate.

The brawest ootsettin o The Versaille style gairdens i Scotland belanged the Earl o Mar at his Pailace in Alloa. Canals ,parterres,stookies an ornamental trees war a wheen o the split new ferlies athin the Pailace Gairdens, alang wi the mair common sundials o the era.

The Ryal Botanic Gairdens o Embra wes foondit i 1670 as whit is cryed A Physics Gairden.It wes tae pit thegither the gaitherins o Doctor Robert Sibbald an Botanist Andrew Balfour for tae create a soorce o medicine. Alsae a Physics Gairden wes foondit at Glesca Varsity i 1703.

18t Century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gairdenin here in Scotland wesnae juist for The Nabs an Lairds. Ordinar common fowks an crofters wad hae haed thair ain gairdens roond aboot thair hooses,a smaa drystane aurea cryed planaticrae inThe Orkney an Shetland Isles an a Kailyaird i The Lawlands whaur the like o cabbage an kail wad hae been growne for substenance alang wi greens an tatties.

The mair fantoosh an exotic type plaunts like neep,ingans an rhubarb at firstlins wad hae kythed athin the Physic Gairdens o The Nabs an Lairds war tae ower time spreid oot intil uisse amang ordinar fowk.

19t Century[eedit | eedit soorce]

New norries anent gairdenin war tae kythe wi the writins o Humphrey Repton (1752-1818) an wi sic like wad forder the appearance o the mair furmal gairden near tae a Mains hoose.

His ideas war ontaen bi John Claudius Louden (1783-1843), wha wes ane o the maist eydent Gairdenin Authorties o thae days athort Britain an ayont, wi ideas o his bein wirkit intil the Gairdens at Drummond Castle, Dunrobin an Drumlandrig.

Drummond Castle panoramic view frae the baroque gairden

In the mids o the 19t Century we stairt tae see Public Parks aw ower Scotland wi the like o the designer Joseph Paxton (1803-1865), creatin baith Kelvingrove Pairk an Queens Pairk in Glesca alang wi the public Pairk i Dunfermline.

In wastren Scotland the betimes mair couthie climate an syle alloued for the makkin o Plantsmans Gairdens at Crurae,Arduaine an Younger Botanic Gairdens in Argyllshire an Inverewe , Sutherland an Logan Botanic Gairdens in Wigtonshire.

20t Century[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the period atween the Twa Warld Wars Gairdenin wes gien encouragement bi central Govrenment tae be ontaen bi wir Wirkin Cless fowk. The upheezin o gairdenin wes tae allou for fowk tae haud wide frae less haelthy acteivities.

The awnin o a gairden wes a thing at wes ootwith the maist feck o fowk in urban Scotland ower the heid o hoosin condeitions athin wir inner Ceities,hooanever thaim that war fortunate war liker tae growe for substenance ither nor wi the gairden suburb model at wes mair popular in Ingland. The kythin o allotments wes tae gie easment tae monie, an bi 1939 Scotland haed ower 20,000.

Maistweys it wes amang the middle clesses at gairdenin becam popular in yon period,nae doots upheezed bi Horticultural Shows, Pairk Gairdens an betimes airticles at war prentit athin local Newspapers.

In the years efter The Saicont Warld War, Radio firtlins, an efterhaund TV war tae ootgie mair entertainment norries anent gairdenin, an wi mair an mair fowk able for tae awn gairdens we hae in 1978 the first braidcastin o the aye popular Gairdenin Programme The Beechgrove Garden filmed in Aiberdeen bi the BBC that wes airtit taewards mair suburban Gairdeners.

Nooadays gairdenin is aye tae the fore amang wir populace an wi the ootsettin o a rowth o DIY gairdenin buiks an the fouth o wabsteids on the internet anent the subjeck, gairden is noo a weill staiblisht hobby for monie hame awners the day.

Types o Gairdenin in Modren times[eedit | eedit soorce]

The'r a wheen sindrie weys a bodie can ontak gairdenin nooadays. The leet ootset ablo gies us a cuttie innin tae ilkane o the maist popular kinnds.

Flat rooftop with greenery and a small rectangular pool
Ruif gairden o Rockefeller Center in Manhattan USA
  • 1. Indoor Gairdenin is the growin o plaunts inben a hoose ,biggin or greenhoose,whiles lairge indoor Warehooses for Shows an expedeitions or aiblins hotels.Aftimes indoor plaunt growin can eik til the ordinar growin season.
  • 2. Gairdenin wi hamelt plaunts is tae uise an forder wir native species for tae perteck an hain habitats for wildlife .This gies yer gairden harmony wi the surroondin airts .Thir plaunts an species are naitral tae local pairts ,an sicwyce will lessen watter uisage an maintenance while gien interess tae native insect life.
  • 3. Watter Gairdenin is the growin an uiss o plants at ar adaptit tae puils an wat boggit grunnd. The maist easy type wad be a baseec tub wi watter an plaunts. Sib til this aurea o gairdenin is aquascapin ,or a gairden that is creatit athin an aquarium tank.
  • 4. Container Gairdenin is adae wi growin plaunts inben containers ,windae trochs,hingin baskets an plaunters,an betimes can be seen on patios an buinheid i ruiftap gairdens forby.
  • 5. Community Gairdenin is gairdenin ontaen bi a curn fowk for tae forder thare local airts,whiles alsae tae gie oot fresh produce amang local fowk.This can aften foster community speirit an ingaither a neibour like environment. Aftimes the gairden is awned bi local Govrenment or Chairity.
  • 6. Gairden sharin allous a bodie at haes want o a gairden tae help oot wi fowk at aiblins haes an owerplus o land, an dinna hiv the abeility tae gairden sic land thairsels. Maistlins wi sich a gairden the aurea is split atwa an aw produce is shared oot.

Reference[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Choice of Plants". Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  2. "Pompeii Gardens". Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  3. "History extra". A guide to ancient gardens.
  4. "The Perfect Monastic Garden". The Gardens Trust. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  5. "The Medieval Gardens in Scotland". Historic Scottish Gardens.