Euornithes

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Euornithes
Temporal range:
Early CretaceousPresent,[1] 130.7–0 Ma
Fossil specimen (DNHM D2945 6) of Hongshanornis longicresta.jpg
Fossil specimen of Hongshanornis longicresta
Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Cless: Aves
Clade: Ornithothoraces
Clade: Euornithes
Cope, 1889
Subgroups

An see text

Euornithes (frae Greek ευόρνιθες euórnithes meaning "true birds") is a natural group whilk includes the maist recent common ancestor o aw avialans closer tae modren birds than tae Sinornis.

Description[eedit | eedit soorce]

Clarke et al. (2006) fund that the maist primitive knawn euornithians (the Yanornithiformes) haed a mosaic o advanced an early features. These species retained primitive features like gastralia (belly ribs) an a pubic symphysis. They forby shawed the first fully modren pygostyles, an the type specimen o Yixianornis (IVPP 13631) preserves aicht elongated rectrices (tail feathers) in a modren arrangement. No earlier pygostylians are knawn whilk preserve a fan o tail feathers o this sort; insteid, they shaw only paired plumes or a tuft o short feathers.[2]

Classification[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name Euornithes haes buin uised faer a wide variety o avialan groups syne it wis first name't bi Edward Drinker Cope i 1889. It wis first defined as a clade i 1998 by Paul Sereno, who maide it the group o aw animals closer tae fouls than tae Enantiornithes (represented by Sinornis). This defineetion currently includes similar content as another widely uised name, Ornithuromorpha, name't an defined bi Luis Chiappe i 1999 as the common ancestor o Patagopteryx, Vorona, an Ornithurae, forby aw o its descendants. Acause one defineetion is node-based an the ither branch-based, Ornithuromorpha is a slichtly less inclusive group.

Relationships[eedit | eedit soorce]

The cladogram below follaes the results o a phylogenetic analysis bi Lee et al., 2014:[3]

Ornithothoraces

Enantiornithes

Euornithes

Archaeorhynchus

Jianchangornis

Zhongjianornis

Chaoyangia

Schizooura

Ornithuromorpha

Patagopteryx

Vorona

Ambiortus

Songlingornithidae

Hongshanornithidae

Apsaravis

Gansus

Hollanda

Ornithurae

Ichthyornis

Hesperornithes

Limenavis

Aves (modren fouls)

Ither genera[eedit | eedit soorce]

The follaein is a leet o early euornithian genera an thae that canna be siccarly refert tae any subgroups, follaein Holtz (2011) unless itherweys notit.[4]

Note that Holtz an aw included the genera Eurolimnornis and Piksi as euornitheans, tho they have syne buin re-identified as pterosaurs.[7]

Soorces[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Wang, Min; Zheng, Xiaoting; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Lloyd, Graeme T.; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Zhonghe (2015). "The oldest record of Ornithuromorpha from the Early Cretaceous of China". Nature Communications (in Inglis). 6: Article number 6987. doi:10.1038/ncomms7987. PMC 5426517. PMID 25942493.
  2. Clarke, Julia A.; Zhou, Zhonghe; Zhang, Fucheng (2006). "Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China an the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui". Journal of Anatomy. 208 (3): 287–308. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00534.x. PMC 2100246. PMID 16533313.
  3. Lee, Michael SY; Cau, Andrea; Darren, Naish; Gareth J., Dyke (2013). "Morphological Clocks in Paleontology, and a Mid-Cretaceous Origin of Crown Aves". Systematic Biology. 63 (3): 442–9. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syt110. PMID 24449041.
  4. Holtz Jr., Thomas R. (2012). "Winter 2011 Appendix" (PDF). Dinosaurs: the most complete, up-to-date encyclopedia for dinosaur lovers of all ages (in Inglis) (1st ed.). Random House (published 23 October 2007). ISBN 978-0-375-82419-7 – via geol.umd.edu.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Wang, Y.-M.; et al. (2013). "Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China". PLoS ONE (in Inglis). 8 (10): e77693. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077693. PMC 3795672. PMID 24147058.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Huang, Jiandong; Wang, Xia; Hu, Yuanchao; Liu, Jia; Peteya, Jennifer A.; Clarke, Julia A. (15 March 2016). "A new ornithurine from the Early Cretaceous of China sheds light on the evolution of early ecological and cranial diversity in birds". PeerJ (in Inglis). 4: e1765. doi:10.7717/peerj.1765.
  7. Federico L. Agnolin; David Varricchio (2012). "Systematic reinterpretation of Piksi barbarulna Varricchio, 2002 from the Two Medicine Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Western USA (Montana) as a pterosaur rather than a bird". Geodiversitas (in Inglis). 34 (4): 883–894. doi:10.5252/g2012n4a10. Archived frae the oreeginal on 2013-01-07.

Ither wabsteids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media relatit tae Euornithes at Wikimedia Commons

Media relatit tae Euornithes fossils at Wikimedia Commons

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