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Alcoholism is a braid term fir proablems wae alcohol, an generally is uist tae mean compulsive an uncontrollable consumpt o alcoholic drink, mair awften than no tae the detriment o the drinker's ane weel bein, persoanl relationships, an social staundin. It is medically considert tae be an ailment, specifically an addictive illness, an in psychiatry sevral ither terms ir uised an aa, specifically "alcohol abuse" an "alcohol dependence," which differ in lik bi definition.[1] In 1979 an expert Wurld Healt Organization committee discurit the uiss o "alcoholism" in medicine, preferrin the category o "alcohol dependence syndrome".[2] In the 19t an early 20t centuries, alcohol dependence in general wis cawd dipsomania, but noo that term haes a mair specific meanin. Fouk ailin frae alcoholism ir awften cawd "alchies" (colloquial) or "alcoholics" (formal). Ither terms, the lik o which hae been insulting or informal, hae been Kent throu'oot historie., The Wurld Healt Organization estimate thare ir 140 million fouk wae alcoholism wurldwide.[3]

Chairity Alcohol Change UK hae upcast that 586,780 fowk in Ingland ar dependent on alcohol, wi anely 18% o thaim seekin treatment needit ti thole through.[4]

The Scottish Intercollegit group network defines hazardous drinking ower 40g o pure ethanol (5 units) evry day fir men an ower 24g pure ethanol (3 units) evry day fir weemen. Howe'er, thir leemits ir uist tae identify heich risk group an harmfu drinking is considert tae hae mair holistic definition that encompasses physical an mental healt. The internation'l classification o diseases (ICD-10) requires actual harm tae the physical or mental weel bein a an individual tae ful'fu the definition a harmfu drinkin. Alcohol dependence is fairther definitively describit bi SIGN as an individual wae at least 3 o the fallowin; drouth fir alcohol, nae control in gien the drink up, a physioloogical withdrawl state when aff the drink, tolerance, neglect o ither activities an persistent uiss despite obvious detriment tae the drinker.[5]

Treatment o alcoholism taks severl steps. Cause o the medical proablems that can be causd wae withdrawal, alcohol detoxification is carefu'y controllt an mey involve medications sic as benzodiazepines lik diazepam (Valium). fowk wae alcoholism ir mair prone tae ither addictions, includin addictions tae benzodiazepines, thit'll mibbie complicate this step. Efter detoxification, ither support sic as group therapy or" self-help" groups are uist tae help the person stay aff the drink. Thombs (1999) states accordin tae behaviourl sciences, alcoholism is describit as a “maladaptive behavyir”. He explains this must no be confusit wae “misbehavyir”. Behaviourl scientists expleen that addicts hae a behavyir pattern that mey lead tae destructive consequences for themsel, thair kin an society. This dissnae label addicts as bad or irresponsible. Comparit wae men, weemen ir mair sensitive tae alcohol's harmfu physical, cerebral, an mental effects.[6]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Littrell, Jill (2 Januar 2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism: Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism:volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse (in Inglis). Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-317-78314-5.
  2. "Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5 | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)". www.niaaa.nih.gov. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  3. World Health Organization (2018). Global status report on alcohol and health 2018. World Health Organization, World Health Organization. Management of Substance Abuse Team. Geneva. ISBN 92-4-156563-2. OCLC 1089229677.
  4. "Alcohol statistics". Alcohol Change UK. Retrieved 17 Januar 2021.
  5. "Alcohol's Effects on the Body | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)". web.archive.org. 3 Juin 2015. Archived frae the original on 3 Juin 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2022.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. Thombs, Dennis L (1999). "Introduction to addictive behaviors, 2nd ed". psycnet.apa.org (in Inglis). The Guildford Press. Retrieved 16 November 2022.