Timur (frae the Perso-Arabic form تیمور Tīmūr, ultimately frae Chagatai (Middle Turkic) Temür "iron"; 8 Aprile 1336 – 18 Februar 1405), normally kent as Tamerlane (frae Tīmūr-e Lang) in Inglis, wis a fowerteent-century conqueror o Wastren, South an Central Asie, foonder o the Timurid Empire an Timurid dynasty (1370–1405) in Central Asie, an great great grandfaither o Babur, the foonder o the Mughal Dynasty, which survived till 1857 as the Mughal Empire in Indie.
Born intae the Turco-Mongol Barlas tribe who ruled in Central Asie, Timur wis in his lifetime a controversial figure, an remains so today. He sought tae restore the Mongol Empire, yet his heaviest blow wis against the Islamized Tatar Golden Horde. He wis more at home in an urban environment than on the steppe. He styled himself a ghazi yet some Muslim states, e.g. the Ottoman Empire, wur severely affectit bi his wars. A great patron o the airts, his campaigns also caused vast destruction. Timur told the qadis o Aleppo, durin the sack o that newly conquered ceety,"A am no a man o blood; an God is mi witness that in aw ma wars A hae niver been the aggressor, an that ma enemies hae always been the authors o their awn calamity."
Temür means "iron" in the Chagatai leid an accordin tae the Journal o the Royal Asiatic Society o Great Breetain & Ireland (1972) the term temür is likely derived frae a Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit word *čimara ("iron"). As an adult he wis better kent as Timūr Gurkānī (تيمور گوركانى), Gurkān being the Persianized form o the original Mongolian word kürügän, "son-in-law". Ane o Timur's ancestors who wis kent bi the name "kara-sharnoban" embraced Islam an married the dochter o Chagatai Khan (son o Genghis Khan). Timur wis thus referred tae as the son-in-law o Chagatai Khan. Various Persian sources uise a biname, Tīmūr-e Lang (تیمور لنگ) which translates tae "Timur the Lame", as he wis lame efter sustainin an injury tae his foot in battle. Durin his lifetime his enemies tauntit him wi this name, much tae Timur's discomfort. In the Wast, he is commonly kent as Tamerlane, which derives frae his Persian biname.
Timur wis born in Transoxiana, in the Ceety o Kesh (an area nou better kent as Shahrisabz, 'the green ceety,'), some 50 miles sooth o Samarkand in modern Uzbekistan. His faither, Taraqai, wis a sma-scale landawner an belonged tae the Barlas tribe. The Barlas wur remnants o the original Mongol hordes o Genghis Khan, who haed bi then embraced Turkic an Persian leids an customs.
Timur wis a Muslim, but while his offeecial releegious counselor wis the Hanafite scholar 'Abdu 'l-Jabbar Khwarazmi, his particular persuasion is no kent. In Tirmidh, he haed come unner the influence o his spiritual mentor Sayyid Barakah, a Shiite leader frae Balkh who is buried alangside Timur in Gur-e Amir. Despite his Hanafi background, Timur wis kent tae hold ‘Ali an the Shi’i Imams in hie regard an haes been notit bi various scholars for his "pro-‘Alid" stance. Despite this, Timur wis notit for attackin Shi’is on Sunni grunds an therefore his awn releegious inclinations remain unclear.
- "Timur", Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2007.
- "Central Asia, history of Timur", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007., Quotation: "... Timur first united under his leadership the Turko-Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers...."
- History of Central Asia, Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 December 2008.
- B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam.
- "Timur" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05. Quotation: Tamerlane, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He wis the son o a tribal leader, an he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) tae be a descendant o Jenghiz Khan. Wi an airmy composed o Turks an Turkic-speakin Mongols, remnants o the empire o the Mongols, Timur spent his early military career in subduin his rivals in what is nou Turkistan; bi 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area frae his caipital at Samarkand.
- B.F. Manz, The rise and rule of Tamerlan, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1989, p. 28: "... We know definitely that the leading clan of the Barlas tribe traced its origin to Qarchar Barlas, head of one of Chaghadai's regiments ... These then were the most prominent members of the Ulus Chaghadai: the old Mongolian tribes - Barlas, Arlat, Soldus and Jalayir ..."
- M.S. Asimov & C. E. Bosworth, History of Civilizations of Central Asia, UNESCO Regional Office, 1998, ISBN 92-3-103467-7, p. 320: "… One of his followers was […] Timur of the Barlas tribe. This Mongol tribe had settled […] in the valley of Kashka Darya, intermingling with the Turkish population, adopting their religion (Islam) and gradually giving up its own nomadic ways, like a number of other Mongol tribes in Transoxania …"
- "Islamic world", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Quotation: "Timur (Tamerlane) was of Mongol descent and he aimed to restore Mongol power...."
- "Central Asia, history of Timur", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. (Quotation:"...Timur first united under his leadership the Turko-Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers.")
- "Timurids", in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Quotation: "Timurid dynasty (fl. fifteenth–16th century AD),Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia."
- René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, Rutgers University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9 (p.409) Quotation: "...In fact, he was no Mongol, but a Turk.http://www.oxuscom.com/cahist1.htm"
- "Timur", Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2007.
- Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. (p.75) Quotation:..."Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336-1405) was a Muslim Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir."
- G. R. Garthwaite, "The Persians", Malden, ISBN 978-1-55786-860-2, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2007. (p.148) Quotation:...Timur's tribe, the Barlas, had Mongol origins but had become Turkic-speaking ... However, Barlus tribe is considered one of the original Mongol tribes and there are "Barlus Ovogton" people who belong to Barlus tribe in modern Mongolia.
- K.Z. Ashrafyan, "Central Asia under Timur from 1370 to the early fifteenth century", (p.320)
- Chaliand, Gérard (2004). Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett. Transaction Publishers, p.75. ISBN 0-7658-0204-X. Limited preview at Google Books. p.75. "Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336-1405) was a Muslim Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. He aspired to recreate the empire of his ancestors. He was a military genius who loved to play chess in his spare time to improve his military tactics and skill. And although he wielded absolute power, he never called himself more than an emir."
- Beatrice Forbes Manz, Temür and the Problem of a Conqueror's Legacy, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Apr., 1998), 25; "In his formal correspondance Temur continued throughout his life as the restorer of Chinggisid rights. He even justified his Iranian, Mamluk and Ottoman campaigns as a reimposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers...".
- Michal Biran, The Chaghadaids and Islam: The Conversion of Tarmashirin Khan (1331-34) , Journal of American Oriental Society, Vol. 122, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 2002), 751; "Temur, a non-Chinggisid, tried to build a double legitimacy based on his role as both guardian and restorer of the Mongol Empire.".
- Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall on the Roman Empire, Modern Library, v. iii, p. 665.
- Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Cambridge University Press, 1972. Snippet, p.104
- The Descendants of Sayyid Ata and the Rank of Naqīb in Central Asia by Devin DeWeese Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 115, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1995), pp. 612-634
- Four studies on the history of Central Asia, Volume 1 By Vasilij Vladimirovič Bartold p.19
- Islamic art By Barbara Brend p.130
- Virani, Shafique N. The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, A Search for Salvation (New York: Oxford University Press), 2007, p. 114.
- Timur at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Timur's Life
- (Timur's) Towers of Terror - CASE STUDY OF CIVILIAN TARGETING IN WARTIME (the html version of this file: ), The Department of Political Science at Duke University
- The Battle of Ankara
- The rise of Timur-i-Leng
- The Timurid Dynasty
- The Names and Titles used by Timur
- Memoir of the Emperor Timur (Malfuzat-i Timuri) Timur'. Compiled in the book: "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877
- Tamburlaine the Great Part One
- Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D.1403-6 - Full text at Google Books.
- Nationality or Religion: Views of Central Asian Islam