Northren Ireland

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Norlin Airlann*
(Ulster Scots)
Tuaisceart Éireann
(Erse)
Northern Ireland
(Inglis)
Ulster banner.svg Northern Ireland coat of arms.png
(Unoffeicial Banner) (Unoffeicial Coat o Airms)
Ryal Ensenyie: Quis separabit
(Laitin: Wha wul sinder?)
Northren Ireland's airt
Northren Ireland's airt athin the UK
Northren Ireland's airt athin the UK
Offeicial leids Scots, Inglis, Erse
Heidtoun an
mukkilest ceitie
Belfast
First Meinister Peter Robinson
Aurie
 - Tot

13,843 km²
Indwallers
 - Tot (2001)
 - Densitie

1,685,267
122/km²
NUTS 1 UKN
Foondin Pairteition o Ireland (1920)
Siller Poond sterling (£) (GBP)
Time zone
 - in Simmer
UTC+0
UTC+1
Cawin Code +44 281
Naitional flouer Shamrock
Patron saunt Saunt Patrick
1. 048 frae the Republic o Ireland.
* This wrangous neologism wis niver uis'd bi native speakers oniewhaur at onietime. It wis cleckit in the late 1990s bi Ulstèr-Scotch enthusiasts.

Northren Ireland (Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is ane o fower kintras o the Unitit Kinrick. It is in the north o the iland o Ireland, whaur it haes a laund mairch wi the Republic o Ireland, the ae pairt o the Unitit Kinrick wi an internaitional laund mairch. It wis foondit bi the Govrenment o Ireland Act, 1920.

It kivers 5,459 mi², aboot a saxt o the hail aurie o the iland, an haes 1,685,000 indwallers (Aprile 2001) — atwein a fowert an a thrid o the iland's hail population.

Historie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airtikil: Historie o Northren Ireland; for events afore 1900 see Historie o Ireland.

The aurie that's nou kent as Northren Ireland haes haed a diverse historie. Frae servin as the bedrock o Irish resistance in the tym o the plantations o Queen Elizabeth an James VI & I in ither pairts o Ireland, it becam the subjek o major plantin o Scots an Inglish settilers itsel eftir the Flicht o the Earls in 1607 (whan the native Gaelic aristocracie flittit en masse for Catholic Europe).

The aw-iland Kinrick o Ireland (1541-1801) wis incorporate intil the Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Ireland in 1801 unner the terms o the Act o Union, the kinriks o Ireland an Great Breetain gang thegither unner ane pairlament, govrenment an monarchie based in Lunnon. In the aerlie 20t centurie Unionists, led bi Sir Edward Carson, gainstaundit the introduction o Hame Rule in Ireland. Unionists wis in a minoritie on the iland o Ireland as a hail, but wis a majoritie in the Northren stewartrie o Ulster. A byspel o the Unionists' sheer determination no til hae Hame Rule foist'd on thaim wis the Lairne Gun Runnin in 1912, whan thay smuggilt thoosands o ryfils an roonds o ammuneition frae Imperial Germany. Tharfore, eftir the First Warld War, Ireland wis parteitiont in 1921 unner the terms o the Govrenment o Ireland Act 1920 atwein sax o the nyn Ulster coonties in the nor'eist (furmin Northren Ireland) an the ither twintie-sax coonties o the sooth an wast (furmin the Irish Free State in 1922). Whan the latter got domeinion status, the sax Northren Ireland coonties — unner the procedurs setten oot in the Anglo-Irish Treatie, 1921 — optit oot, an sae byds as pairt o the Unitit Kinrick.

The Ireland Act 1949 gied the first lawfu guarantee til the Pairlament an Govrenment that Northren Ireland wadna stap bein pairt o the Unitit Kinrick athoot consent o the fek o its ceitizens, an this wis maist recent reaffirm'd bi the Northren Ireland Act 1998. This status wis echoed in the Anglo-Irish Greement in 1985, that wis signed bi the govrenments o the Unitit Kinrick an the Republic o Ireland. Bunreacht na hÉireann, the constitution o the Republic, wis amendit in 1999 for ti remuve a claim til owerins ower the hail o Ireland (in Airtikil 2), a claim qualifee'd bi an acknawledgment o Breetish rule in the nor'eist. The new Airtikils 2 an 3, eikit til the Bunreacht for ti replace the aerlier airtikils, acknawledge impleecit that the status o Northren Ireland, an its relationships wi the Unitit Kinrick an the Republic o Ireland, wad anerlie be chynged wi the greement o the fek o voters in Northren Ireland. An acknawledgement that a deceision on whither ti byd in the Unitit Kinrick or jyn the Republic o Ireland byds wi the fowk o Northren Ireland wis central til the Belfast Greement anaw, that wis sign'd in 1998 an raitifee'd bi simultanous plebiscites hauden in baith Northren Ireland an the Republic. Houaniver, monie unionist leaders equivocate whan speirt if thay wad accept a reunitit Ireland peacefu if the fek o Northren Ireland socht it.

A plebiscite athin Northren Ireland anent whither it shod byd in the Unitit Kinrick, or jyn the Republic, wis hauden in 1973. The vote gaed hivilie in faur o uphaudin the ‘’status quo’’, in pairt acause monie naitionalists boycottit it. Tho legal proveision byds for haudin anither plebiscite, an the Ulster Unionist Pairtie leader David Trimble sum yeirs syn advocatit the haudin o sican a vote, nae plans for sican a vote haes been adoptit as o 2005.

Demografics an politics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The fek o the-day’s population (59%, gaun bi a 2004 survey) is unionist an wisses ti byd pairt o the Unitit Kinrick, but a signeeficant minoritie (22%), kent as Erse naitionalists, is eftir a unitit Ireland. The makup o the Northren Ireland Assemblie refleks thir diveisions amang the indwallers. O the 108 members, 59 is unionist an 42 is naitionalist (the ither seivin is kent as "ither"). The mukkilest releigious denomination o Northren Ireland is the Roman Catholic kirk, follaed bi the Presbyterian kirk in Ireland an the Kirk o Ireland, wi the Methodist Kirk o Ireland cumin fowert. Thir twa views is inhauden ti deeper cultural diveisions. Unionists is maistlins Protestant an aften the affspring o Scots an Inglis (maist bein Scots) sattilment in the aforegaun centuries, whyl naitionalists is maistlins Catholic an forordnar descends frae the indeiginous fowk. Diskreimination agin naitionalists unner the Stormont govrenment (1920–1972) gied rise til the naitionalist "Ceivil Richts Muvement" in the 1960s, an at lang an lenth til an ongaun strauchil kent as The Truibils. Poleitical wanrest haes gane throu its maist veiolent phase in recent tyms atwein 1968–1994. The main actors haes been parameilitaries representin minorities frae baith syds o the divide an the Ryal Ulster Constabular an Breetish Airmy representin the Breetish owerins an the Northren Ireland state. As an affcum o the warsenin securitie seitiation, sel-govrenment for Northren Ireland wis suspendit in 1972. Syn the mid 1990s, the main parameilitar group, the Proveesional IRA haes observ'd an uneithie ceasefire. Follaein negotiations, the Belfast Greement o 1998 provides for an electit Northren Ireland Assemblie, an a pouer-sharin Northren Ireland Executive pitten thegither frae representatives o aw the main pairties. Thir institutions haes been suspendit syn 2002 acause o PSNI allegations o spyin bi fowk wirkin for Sinn Féin at the Assemblie, awtho naebodie wis conveictit eftir a hie-profile polis unnertakin.

On 28 Julie, 2005, the Proveesional IRA caw'd an end til its 'war'.

Seembols[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Reid Haund o Ulster is ane o the few seimbols bruikit bi baith communities

The-day, Northren Ireland haes a sindrie patchwirk o communitie rivalries, representit in sum auries bi hail communities whaur laump posts an sum hames flees the Irish tricolour (a taiken o Irish identitie) or ense the Union Banner (a taiken o Breetish identitie), whyls e'en the kerbstanes in less weil-daein auries gits pentit green-white-oranger or reid-white-blue, lippnin on whither the communitie is naitionalist/republican or unionist/lealist.

As a constituent pairt o the Unitit Kinrick, the ae offeicial Banner o Northren Ireland is the Union Banner. The 'Ulster Banner' (or 'Reid Haund Banner') is nae langer offeicial acause o the aboleition o the Pairliament o Northren Ireland in 1972. Unionists tents ti bruik the Union Banner an whyls the 'Ulster Banner', whyl naitionalists forordnar bruiks the Irish tricolour. Sum unionists whyls bruiks the banner o the secular an releigious groups thay belang. The 'Ulster Banner' is foondit on the Banner o Ulster. Sum groups, includin the Irish Rugbie Fitbaw Union haes bruikit the Banner o Saunt Patrick as a taiken o Ireland that wants the same naitionalist or unionist owertones, but e'en this is felt bi sum ti be a lealist banner, acause it wis design'd bi the Breetish an is bruikit bi sum Breetish Airmie regiments. Nae universalie acceptabil seembol haes been fund yit.

Lykweys, thar's nae langer an offeicial naitional anthem. At maist events needin a Northren Irish naitional anthem, God Save the Queen is play'd. At the Commonwealth Gemmes the auld anthem o Northren Ireland is play'd, alangsyd the Ulster Banner (abuin), A Londonderry Air, aiblins better kent ootwi Northren Ireland as the tuin o Danny Boy, is bruikit.

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cairt o Northren Ireland

Northren Ireland wis shapit bi an ice sheet for maist o the last ice eild an monie tyms afore, the legacie o whit can be seen in the mukkil kiverin o drumlins in Coonties Fermanagh, Armagh, Antrim an in parteicular Doun. The midbit o Northren Ireland's geografie is Loch Neagh, at 392 km² the maist mukkil callerwattir loch in the Breetish Isles. Anither mukkil loch netwirk is Nether an Upper Loch Erne in Fermanagh.

Thar's hantil uplands in the Sperrin Muntains (an eik o the Caledonian fauld muntains) wi mukkil gowd poses, granite Mourne Muntains an bawsaut Antrim Plateau, wi smawer reenges in Sooth Coontie Armagh an alang the Fermanagh–Tyrone mairch anaw. Nane o the hills is gey heich, wi Slieve Donard in the Mournes raxin til 848 meter, Northren Ireland's heichmaist pynt. The volcanic acteivitie that shapit the Antrim Plateau furmit the eerilie geometric pillars o the Giant's Causey anaw.

The Nether an Upper River Bann, River Foyle an River Blackwattir furms mukkil growthie lawlands, wi barrie arabil laund foond in North an Eist Doun anaw, forby maist o the hill kintra is mairginal an til the maist pairt fittin anerlie for ainimal husbandrie.

The glen o the River Lagan is dominatit bi Belfast, that's metropolitan aurie inhauds ower a thrid o the population o Northren Ireland, wi hivie urbanization an industrialization alang the Lagan glen an baith shores o the Belfast Loch.

The hail o Northren Ireland haes a temperate maritym climate, mair wat in the wast nor the eist, awtho clood kiver is persistent ower the kintra. The wather is unpredictabil yeir aboot, an awtho the saisons is sindrie, thay ar hantil less pronoonced nor in inland Europe or the eistern siebuird o North Americae. Average daytym heichs in Belfast is 6.5 °C (43.7 °F) in Januar an 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in Julie. The dunk climate an mukkil deforestation in the 16t an 17t centuries led ti maist o the kintra bein kiver'd in rich green gressland.

The coonties o Northren Ireland
The destriks o Northren Ireland

Coonties o Northren Ireland[eedit | eedit soorce]

Northren Ireland conseists o sax Irish coonties:

Thir coonties is nae langer bruikit for local govrenment; insteid thar's twintie-sax destriks o Northren Ireland that haes unalyk geografical stents, e'en in the case them cried eftir the coonties that thair names cums frae. Fermanagh Destrik Cooncil follaes the mairches o the coontie it taks its name frae maist o aw.

Ceities an touns[eedit | eedit soorce]

The follaein ar brandit "touns". Thae wi ceitie status ar bauldit.

Steids o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Giant's Causey
Pairt o the Mourne Muntains

Variations in Geografic nomenclatur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Monie fowk athin an ootwi Northren Ireland bruiks ither names for the entitie, as pairt o a lingueistic agenda for ti define the naitur o the state frae thair historic, cultural or poleitical sicht.

The maist common names bruikit is

Unionist
  • Ulster - for ti pit ower that Northren Ireland haes an aulder ancestrie that predates its foondin in 1921, datin back baith til the Plantation o Ulster in the late 17t centurie an to the millennium-auld stewartrie o Ulster, ane o fower stewartries on the iland o Ireland. The stewartrie o Ulster kivers a greter landmass nor Northren Ireland: sax o its coonties is in Northren Ireland, thrie in the Republic o Ireland.
  • The Province - for ti anss mair cleek in wi the historic Irish stewartrie (or "province") o Ulster.
Naitionalist
  • North o Ireland - for til eik Northren Ireland til the lave o the iland, bi deskreivin the state as bein in the 'north o Ireland' an sae playin doun Northren Ireland's links wi Breetain. The northrenmaist pynt in Ireland, in Coonty Donegal, is in fak in the Republic.
Pro-Belfast Greement Republican
  • The Sax Coonties - langage that evyts bruikin the name gien til the state bi the Breetish-enactit Government o Ireland Act, 1920. The Republic is lykweys caw'd the Twintie-Sax Coonties. Sum o the bruikers o this name kemps that bruikin the offeicial name wad implie acceptance o the legeitimacie o the Government o Ireland Act.
Conter-Belfast Greement Republicans
  • The Occupee'd Sax Coonties. The Republic, that's exeistence is gainstaundit bi sicna groups anaw, is deskreiv'd as bein "The Free State," referrin til the Irish Free State, the Republic's auld name.
A roadsyn wi the London in Londonderry pentit-oot

Disagreement on nomenclatur, an the readin o poleitical seembolism intil the uiss or non-uiss o a wird, beirs on sum urban centurs anaw. The maist weil-kent byspel is whither Northren Ireland's seicont ceitie shud be cried Derry or Lunnonderry.

Chyce o langage an nomenclatur in Northren Ireland aften kyths the cultural, ethnic an releigious identitie o the speaker. The first Depute First Meenister o Northren Ireland, Seamus Mallon wis skauldit bi unionists for cryin the state the "North o Ireland" whyl Sinn Féin haes been skauldit in sum newspapers in the Republic for conteinain ti refer til the "Sax Coonties". Naitionalists haes in turn skauldit unionist leaders, for referrin constant til Northren Ireland as "Ulster".

Thaim that disna belang onie group but leans til ae syd aften tends ti bruik the langage o that group. Uphauders o unionism in the Breetish media (maist merkit the Daily Telegraph an the Daily Express) cries Northren Ireland "Ulster" aften whyl naitionalist an republican-leanin media ootlats in Ireland (sic as ‘’Daily Ireland’’) awmaist aye bruiks "the North o Ireland" or "the Sax Coonties".

State institutions an cultural organizations in Northren Ireland, in parteicular thaim that's frae afore the 1980s, aften bruikit the wird "Ulster" in thair teitil; for byspel, the Varsitie o Ulster the Ulster Orchestra, an BBC Radio Ulster.

Monie news bulletins syn the 1990s haes ettilt til evyt aw contentious terms an bruik aither the offeicial name, Northren Ireland, or the cuttie name, "the North". For Northren Ireland's seicont mukkilest ceitie, braidcastin ootlats that's no align'd til aither communitie an braidcasts ti baith, bruiks baith names interchangeabil, aften stairtin a report wi "Lunnonderry" an syn bruikin "Derry" in the lave o the report. Houaniver athin Northren Ireland, prent media that's leal til aither communitie (the Belfast Newsletter is leal til the Unionist communitie whyl the Irish News is leal til the Naitionalist communitie) forordnar bruiks thair communitie's liefer name. Breetish newspapers wi Unionist leanin, sic as the ‘’Daily Telegraph’’ [1], forordnar bruiks the langage o the Unionist communitie, whyl ithers, sic as The Guardian, bruiks the names interchangeabil [2] [3] The media in the Republic o Ireland bruiks the nomenclatur preferr'd bi Naitionalists, eg RTÉ News.

The diveision in nomenclatur is seen in parteicular in sports an releigions associate wi ane o the communities. Gaelic gemmes an fitbaw bruiks Derry in club names for byspel. Houaniver, for ti complicate things baith the maistlie unionist Kirk o Ireland an the maistlie naitionalist Roman Catholic Kirk aw cries thair local beishop Beishop o Derry an Raphoe. Nor is thar clear greement on hou ti decide on a name. Whan the naitionalist-control'd local cooncil votit ti cry the ceitie Derry unionists gainstaundit, sain that, as its ceitie status wis aucht a Ryal Chairter, anerlie a chairter pit furth bi Queen Elizabeth II cud chynge the name. Queen Elizabeth waled not til intervene.

Oweraw the uiss o nomenclatur exclusive til ae communitie bi ae communitie is a merkit featur o Northren Ireland. At tyms o heich communal tension, ilka syd compleins oft anent the bruik o the nomenclatur associate wi the ither communitie bi a thrid pairtie sic as a media organization, threipin sic bruik kyths "bias" agin thair communitie.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

See Ulster-Scots fowk, Cultur o Ireland, Cultur o the Unitit Kinrick

Wi its bettert internaitional staunin, Northren Ireland haes recentlie seen risin nummers o tourists wha cum til apprise the aurie's unique heritage. Attractions include cultural blythtyds, muisical an airtistic tradeitions, kintrasyd an geografical steids o interest, pubs, walcumin hospitalitie an sports (especialie gowf an fishin). In 1987, pubs war allou'd til apen on Sundays.

Leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

A trilingual syn in Strule Airts Centur, Omey. Inglis is at the tap, Irish in the middil an Ulster-Scots at the dowp

The Mid Ulster dialek o English that's spak in Northren Ireland shaws influence frae baith the Wast Midlands an Scotland, tharby giein it a distink accent e'en wi the lave o Hiberno-English, alang wi the uisi o sic Scots wirds as wee and aye. Sum jokinlie cry this dialek foneticalie bi the name Norn Iron. Thar's suposedlie sum wee differs in pronunciation atwein Protestants an Catholics, the best kent o thaim is the name o the letter h, that Protestants tends ti pronoonce as "aitch", as in Breetish English, an Catholics tends ti pronoonce as "haitch", as in Hiberno-English. Houaniver, geografie is a sicht mair wechtie determinant o dialek nor ethnic backgrund. English is bi ferr the maist braid spoken leid in Northren Ireland.

Unner the Guid Friday Greement, Irish an Ulster Scots haes offeicial acknawledgment on a par wi that o English. Aften the bruik o the Irish leid in Northren Ireland haes met wi the suspeicion o Unionists, that haes associate it wi the maistlie Catholic Republic o Ireland, an mair recent, wi the republican muvement in Northren Ireland itsel.

Ulster Scots bes varieties o the Scots leid that's spak in Northren Ireland. Monie threips that it haes becum a sindert leid, descendit frae Scots in Scotland, whaur as ithers quaisten whither Scots is a sindert leid frae English, or juist a hatter o dialeks o Scots an Northren Hiberno-English.

Chinese an Urdu is spoken bi Northren Ireland's Asian communities an aw. Gaun bi the maist recent census, Chinese is nou the seicont maist spoken leid, tho the 8000-strang Chinese communitie — whyl aften referr'd til as the "thrid mukkilest" communitie in Northren Ireland — is awfu wee bi internaitional staundarts.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]


Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Jonathan Bardon, A History of Ulster (Blackstaff Press, Belfast, 1996)
  • Robert Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism (Penguin, 1972–2000), ISBN 0-14-029165-2

Fremmit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]