Nelson Mandela

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"Mandela" redirects here. For ither uisses, see Mandela (disambiguation).
His Excellency
Nelson Mandela
OM AC CC OJ OSJ QC GCH BR RSO NPK
Nelson Mandela on his 90t birthday in Johannesburg, Sooth Africae, in Mey 2008
Mandela in Mey 2008
Preses o Sooth Africae
In office
10 Mey 1994 – 14 Juin 1999
Deputy Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Precedit bi F. W. de Klerk
Succeeded by Thabo Mbeki
Personal details
Born Rolihlahla Mandela
18 Julie 1918(1918-07-18)
Mvezo, Sooth Africae
Deed 5 December 2013(2013-12-05) (agit 95)
Johannesburg, Gauteng, Sooth Africae
Naitionality Sooth African
Poleetical pairty African Naitional Congress
Spoose(s) Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1958–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–present)
Childer Madiba Thembekile
Makgatho Lewanika
Makaziwe
Maki
Zenani
Zindziswa
Josina Z. Machel (step dauchter)
Malengani Machel (step son)
Residence Houghton Estate, Johannesburg, Gauteng, Sooth Africae
Alma mater Varsity o Fort Hare
Varsity o Lunnon Freemit Seestem
Varsity o Sooth Africae
Varsity o the Witwatersrand
Releegion Christianity (Methodism)
Signatur Signature o Nelson Mandela
Wabsteid www.nelsonmandela.org
Nobel prize medal.svg

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]) (18 Julie 1918 − 5 December 2013)[1] servit as Preses o Sooth Africae frae 1994 tae 1999, an wis the first Sooth African president tae be electit in a fully representative democratic election.

Mandela wis born in Mvezo, Sooth Africae to a royal Thembu clan.

Afore his presidency, Mandela wis an anti-apartheid activist, an the leader o Umkhonto we Sizwe, the airmed wing o the African Naitional Congress (ANC).

In 1962 he wis arrestit an convictit o sabotage an ither charges, an sentenced tae life in prison. Mandela served 27 years in prison, spendin mony o these years on Robben Island. Follaein his release frae prison on 11 Februar 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that led tae multi-racial democracy in 1994.

In 1993, Mandela was awaidit the Nobel Peace Prize wi F. W. de Klerk.

As president frae 1994 tae 1999, he frequently gave priority tae reconciliation. Mandela acame heid o the Govrenment o Naitional Unity which wis unner controllit bi the African Naitional Congress (or ANC). Mandela haed never plannit on servin a seicont term in office. Mandela gae his farwell speech on 29 Mairch 1999, efter which he retirit. In Sooth Africae, Mandela is eften kent as Madiba, an honorary title adoptit bi elders o Mandela's clan.

Mandela deit frae lung infection in Johannesburg, agit 95.

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela wis born on Julie 18, 1918 in Mvezo, Umtata (nou Mthatha), Transkei, Sooth Africae. He wis a member o the Thembu Royal Faimily. Mandela's father died when he wis nine. He wis eddicatit at Fort Hare Varsity.

Anti-apartheid activity[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1944, Mandela helpit stairt the African Naitional Congress Youth League.[2] He wis soon a heich-rankit leader o the group.[2]

He wantit tae free Sooth Africae wioot violence, but the govrenment stairtit killin an hurtin protesters. He then stairtit Umkhonto we Sizwe wi Walter Sisulu an ither fowk in the African Naitional Congress that he admirit, such as Mahatma Gandhi.[3].

A trial wis later held an acame kent as the Rivonia Trial. Mandela wis on trial acause o his involvement in sabotage an violence in 1962.[4] He wis sentencit tae life in prison,[2] an wis sent tae Robben Island, but wis transferrit tae Victor Verster Prison in 1988.

In 1990, he wis let oot o Victor Verster Prison efter 26.5 years. He left prison efter de Klerk removit a ban on the African Naitional Congress. He orderit Mandela's release. He then receivit the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993, wi umwhile State Preses o Sooth Africae, Frederik Willem de Klerk.[5]

Preses o Sooth Africae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mandela won the general election in Aprile 1994. His inauguration wis in Pretoria on 10 Mey 1994. Mony fowk aroond the warld saw his inauguration on televeesion. Mandela wis the first Sooth Africaen Preses electit in a completely democratic election.[6] Mandela acame heid o the Govrenment o Naitional Unity which wis unner controllit bi the African Naitional Congress (or ANC). Mandela haed never plannit on servin a seicont term in office. Mandela gae his farwell speech on 29 Mairch 1999, efter which he retirit.[7] Mandela's term endit on 14 Juin 1999. Thabo Mbeki succeedit Mandela as Preses o Sooth Africae.

Personal life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mandela haes been marrit three times an haes sax children. He haed seventeen grandchilder,[8] an a growin nummer o great-grandchilder.[9] In Juin 2004, Mandela announcit that he wis retirin frae public life.[10]

Awairds[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mandela haes received mair than 250 awairds ower fower decades, includin the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.[5]

Daith[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mandela deit on 5 December 2013 at his home at Houghton Estate, Johannesburg frae complications o a lung infection, agit 95.[11] He was surroundit bi his faimily when he deit. His daith was announcit bi Preses Jacob Zuma.[11] He wis burit in Qunu, Sooth Africae.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Nelson Mandela, hero of South Africa, dies at 95". ctvnews.ca. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "African National Congress Home Page". ANC.org.za. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  3. "Nelson Mandela Tribute". Sa-Venues.com. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  4. "Nelson Mandela". Law2.com. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "The Nobel Peace Prize 1993 Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 
  6. "Mandela 'responding positively' to medical treatment". CNN.com. Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  7. "Nelson Mandel retires". World History Project. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  8. Geoffrey York (2013-04-16). "South Africans express disgust as Mandela family members cash in on icon’s name". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 June 2006. 
  9. Jon Jeter (17 June 1999). "In S. Africa, a President Replaces an Icon; Mbeki Takes Over From Mandela, Nation's 'Saintly Man'". The Washington Post.  – via HighBeam Research (subscription required). Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  10. "'I'll call you' – Nelson Mandela". South African.info. 2 June 2004. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Nelson Mandela, father of a nation, dies aged 95". 5 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 

Ither wabsteids[eedit | eedit soorce]