Llanfairpwllgwyngyll shown within Wales
|Population||3,040 (2001 UK census)|
|Sovereign state||Unitit Kinrick|
|UK Pairlament||Ynys Môn|
|Welsh Assembly||Ynys Môn|
Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch (Welsh pronunciation: [ˌɬanvairˌpuɬɡwɨ̞ŋˌɡɨ̞ɬɡoˌɡɛrəˌχwərnˌdrobuɬˌɬantɨ̞ˌsiljoˌɡoɡoˈɡoːχ] ( listen)) is a lairge veelage an commonty on the island o Anglesey in Wales, situatit on the Menai Strait next tae the Britannia Brig an athort the strait frae Bangor. This veelage haes the langest place name in Europe an ane o the langest place names in the warld. The short form o the veelage's name is Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, spelt Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll an aw. It is commonly kent as Llanfair PG or Llanfairpwll.
Accordin tae the 2001 census, the population o the commonty is 3,040, 76% o whom speak Welsh fluently; the heichest percentage o speakers is in the 10–14 age group, whaur 97.1% are able tae speak Welsh. It is the fift lairgest dounset on the island bi population.
Visitors stop at the railway station tae be photografit next tae the station sign, visit the nearbi Visitors' Centre, or hae 'passports' stampit at a local shop. Anither tourist attraction is the nearbi Marquess o Anglesey's Column, which at a hicht o 27 metres (89 ft) affers views ower Anglesey an the Menai Strait. Designed bi Thomas Harrison, the monument celebrates the heroism o Henry Paget, 1st Marquess o Anglesey at the Battle o Waterloo.
Table o contents
Name[eedit | eedit soorce]
The lang form o the name is the langest offeecially recognisit place name in the Unitit Kinrick an ane o the langest in the warld, bein 58 characters in lenth (51 letters syne "ch" an "ll" are digraphs, or single letters, in the Welsh language).
The name means: [St.] Mary's Kirk (Llanfair) [in] the howe (pwll) o the white hazel (gwyngyll) near (goger) the rapid whirlpuil (y chwyrndrobwll) [an] the kirk o [St.] Tysilio (llantysilio) wi a red cave ([a]g ogo goch).
This veelage wis oreeginally kent as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll (an is sometimes still referred tae as Llanfairpwllgwyngyll) an wis given its lang name in the 19t century in an attempt tae develop the veelage as a commercial an tourist centre (see Significance o the name belaw). The day the veelage is still signpostit as Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, markit on Ordnance Survey maps as Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll an is kent tae locals as Llanfairpwll or simply Llanfair.
The name is seen shortened tae Llanfair PG, which is sufficient tae distinguish it frae the mony ither Welsh veelages wi Llanfair in their names. Ither variant forms uise the full name but wi tysilio mutatit tae dysilio, an/or wi a hyphen atween drobwll an llan. In Welsh, the initial Ll mey be mutatit tae a single L in some contexts.
Significance o the name[eedit | eedit soorce]
The veelage's lang name canna be considered an authentic Welsh-leid toponym. It wis airtificially contrivit in the 1860s tae bestow upon the station the honour o haein the langest name o ony railwey station in Breetain; an early example o a publicity stunt. The veelage's own web site credits the name ta a cobbler frae the local veelage o Menai Brig. Accordin tae Sir John Morris-Jones the name was created by a local tailor, whose name he did not confide, lettin the secret dee wi him. The current postmark shows the name Llanfairpwllgwyngyll, Housomeivver, thare are contemporary examples o the full name seen belaw.
The veelage wis originally kent as 'Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll' "St Mary's kirk in [the tounship named] howe o the white hazel." 'Pwllgwyngyll' wis the oreeginal mediaeval tounship whaur the veelage is the day. Auld variants (wi the Welsh spellin normalisit) wur Llanfair y Pwllgwyngyll ("y" = '(of) the'), an Llanfair Ymhwll Gwyngyll ('mh' is a sandhi chynge frae 'n p', an "yn" = 'in').
The veelage is split intae twae smawer veelages, Llanfairpwllgwyngyll-uchaf (Upper Llanfairpwllgwyngyll) the oreeginal pairt o the veelage an Llanfairpwllgwyngyll-isaf (Lawer Llanfairpwllgwyngyll) the newer aurie nearer the railwey station. These are occasionally referred tae as Pentre Uchaf an Pentre Isaf (Upper Veelage an Lawer Veelage) respectively.
Pronunciation[eedit | eedit soorce]
The full name o the veelage is [ˌɬanvairˌpuɬɡwɨ̞ŋˌɡɨ̞ɬɡoˌɡɛrəˌχwərənˌdrobuɬˌɬantɨ̞ˌsiljoˌɡoɡoˈɡoːχ], or wi [ɪ] for [ɨ̞], [pʊɬ, bʊɬ] for [puɬ, buɬ], dependin on the speaker's accent.
Male Welsh speaker pronouncing Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch.
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The approximate pronunciation in Inglis orthografie is given at the station as: Llan-vire-pooll-guin-gill-go-ger-u-chwurn-drob-ooll-llantus-ilio-gogo-goch. The ch is a voiceless uvular fricative [χ] or voiceless velar fricative as in "Bach" ([bax]: see ach-Laut) in maist varieties o German. The ll is a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ], a soond that does no occur in Inglis an is sometimes approximatit as [θl] (thl as in athlete) or even [xl] bi Inglis speakers. Thare is even a sang on iTunes wi a lesson on hou tae pronounce the name.
Rival names[eedit | eedit soorce]
Thare hae been several attempts tae steal the veelage's record:
- The Carmarthenshire veelage o Llanfynydd unoffeecially adoptit the name Llanhyfryddawelllehynafolybarcudprindanfygythiadtrienusyrhafnauole in 2004 in protest o plans tae erect a wind ferm nearbi (the name means "a quiet bonnie veelage; a historic place wi rare kite unner threat frae wretched blades" in Inglis).
- A station on the Fairbourne Railway wis namit Gorsafawddacha'idraigodanheddogleddollônpenrhynareurdraethceredigion (translatit as "the Mawddach station an its draigon unner the northren peace o the Penrhyn Road on the gowden beach o Cardigan Bay") for promotional purposes.
Nae such attempts hae gained widespread recognition amangst offeecial bodies or transport authorities.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
A settlement has existed on the site of the village since the Neolithic era, with subsistence agriculture and fishing the most common occupations for much of the village's early history. The island of Anglesey was at that point only reachable by boat across the Menai Strait. The area was briefly invaded and captured by the Romans under Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, temporarily abandoned in order to consolidate forces against Boudicca, then held until the end of Roman Britain.
With the withdrawal of the Roman forces, the area fell under the control of the Kingdom of Gwynedd, an early Medieval kingdom. Under this feudal system, the residents worked small farms for the king. The rural nature of the settlement meant that the village had a population of only around 80.
Housomeivver, wi the introduction o estates in the 16t century, hintle o the laund wis absorbit intae the Earldom o Uxbridge, currently unner the Marquess o Anglesey; the inhabitants became tenant farmers on enclosurs. The population o the veelage boomit, wi a population o 385 in the 1801 census.
In 1826, Anglesey wis connectit tae the rest o Wales bi the construction o the Menai Suspension Brig bi Thomas Telford, an connectit wi Lunnon in 1850 wi the biggin o the Britannia Brig an the busy North Wales Coast railwey line, which connectit Lunnon tae the ferry port o Holyhead. The veelage decentralisit, splittin intae Upper Veelage (Pentre Uchaf), which wis made up mainly o the aulder hooses an ferms, an the new Lawer Veelage (Pentre Isaf), built aroond the railwey station an consistin maistly o shops and wirkshops. The veelage became a hub o commerce, as the railweys an road netwirk brocht traders an customers frae athort north Wales.
The first iver meetin o the Women's Institute teuk place in Llanfairpwll in 1915 an the muivement (which began in Canadae) then spread throu the rest o the Breetish Isles.
In popular cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]
The name is celebratit in the sang "Red Cave" bi the baund Yeasayer, which featurs the baund repeatin the lines "Mary's house in the hollow of the white hazel rapid whirlpool and the church of the red cave."
In a reference tae the veelage, the Welsh baund Super Furry Animals cried their debut E.P. Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgoger-ychwyndrobwllantysil-iogogogochynygofod (in space)
The name wis uised in the movie Barbarella an aw as the passwird for the heidquairters o Dildano, the comical revolutionar an bi Peter Sellers in the film The Road to Hong Kong whaur he plays a quack doctor who asks Bob Hope tae say it insteid o the mair uisual 'Ahh' whan examinin his teeth.
The name wis uised as a solution in a crosswird compiled bi Roger Squires for The Telford and Wrekin News whan ryalty visitit Ironbridge in 1979 on the occasion o the 200t anniversary o the first iver brig made o iron. The Telford & Wrekin askit for it so it wad be acceptit bi Guinness Records as the langest wird tae appear in a published crosswird. It wis deemit necessary tae mak it an anagram: “Giggling troll follows Clancy, Larry, Billy and Peggy who howl, wrongly disturbing a place in Wales (58)”.
The 2012 expansion pack tae Civilization V, Gods and Kings, adds a Steam Achievement cried "Longest. Name. Ever." The image that accompanees this contains the letters "...pwllgwyngyll", the last 12 letters o the short version.
See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Neighbourhood Statistics
- Melville Richards, 'Place Names', in An Atlas of Anglesey (Anglesey Community Council. Llangefni, 1972). The late Professor Melville wis ane o Wales' leadin authorities on place names.
Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Village website, leetit in the 2002 Guinness Beuk o Records as the warld's langest valid Internet domain name
- BBC Airticle at H2G2
- Flickr photos
- photos o Llanfair PG an surroondin aurie on geograph
- Musical "How To" lesson on the correct pronunciation
Scots Wiktionar, the free Scots dictionar.