Basque fowk

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Basques
Euskaldunak
Basque people.png

1st row: Arista - Sancho III - Elcano - Loyola - Urdaneta - Oñate - Francesco Saverio
2nt row: Bolívar - Zumalakarregi - Gardoqui- Garat - Iraola - Arana - Errázuriz
3rd row: Garrastazu - Ravel - Evita - Atano VII - Basterretxea - Guevara -Mariano
4t row: Etxenike - Garamendi - Ibarretxe - Eyharts - Chao - Fernandez - Arteta

Total population
approx. 2.6 million in Spain an Fraunce
Regions wi signeeficant populations
Banner o Spain Spain 2,359,400[1]
      Banner o Basque Kintra (autonomous commonty) Basque Kintra 1,850,500[1]
                    Álava 279,000
                    Biscay 1,160,000
                    Gipuzkoa 684,000
      Banner o Navarre Navarre 508,900[1]
Banner o Fraunce Fraunce 230,200[1]
          Labourd 225,000
          Lawer Navarre 40,000
          Soule 20,000
Diaspora
Banner o Argentinae Argentinae 3.5 million [2][3]
Banner o Chile Chile 1.7 - 4.5 million [4][5]

[6] [7] [8]

Banner o Cuba Cuba 1.5 million [9]
Banner o Brazil Brazil uncertain
Banner o Ecuador Ecuador uncertain
Banner o Mexico Mexico uncertain
Banner o Philippines Philippines uncertain
Banner o Colombie Colombie 60,000 [10]
Banner o Unitit States Unitit States uncertain
Banner o Uruguay Uruguay 102.200
Banner o Costa Rica Costa Rica 9,800 [11]
Banner o Venezuela Venezuela 5,500 [12]
Banner o Bolivie Bolivie uncertain
Banner o Peru Peru uncertain
Leids

Basque - few monoglots
Spainyie - 1,525,000 monoglots
French - 150,000 monoglots
Basque-Spainyie - 600,000 speakers
Basque-French - 76,000 speakers

Releegion

Roman Catholicism, Atheism, Agnosticism

The Basques (Basque: euskaldunak, Spainyie: vascos, French: basques) as an ethnic group primarily inhabit an aurie traditionally kent as the Basque Kintra (Basque: Euskal Herria), a region that is locatit aroond the wastren end o the Pyrenees on the coast o the Bay o Biscay an straddles pairts o north-eastren Spain an sooth-wastren Fraunce.

The Basques are kent in the local leids as:

  • Euskaldunak ("Basque speakers", an aa uised loosely tae describe aw ethnic Basques), euskal herritarrak ("natives o the Basque Kintra") or euskotarrak ("natives of the Basque Kintra", an aften mentioned but rarely uised neologism) in Basque
  • Vascos in Spainyie
  • Basques in French
  • Bascos in Gascon

Etymology o the wird Basque[eedit | eedit soorce]

The wird Basque comes frae French Basque (pronooncit /bask/), which itsel comes frae Gascon Basco (pronooncit /ˈbasku/) an Spainyie Vasco (pronounced /ˈbasko/). These, in turn, come frae Liatin Vasco (pronounced /wasko/), plural Vascones. The Laitin labial-velar approximant /w/ generally evolvit intae the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon an Spainyie, probably unner the influence o Basque an Aquitanian, a leid relatit tae auld Basque an spoken in Gascony in Antiquity (similarly the Laitin /w/ evolvit intae /v/ in French, Italian an ither leids).

Barscunes coin, Roman period

Several coins frae the 1st an 2nt centuries BC foond in the Basque Kintra bear the inscription barscunes. The place whaur they wur mintit is no certain but is thought tae be somewhaur near Pamplona in the hertland o the aurie that historians believe wis inhabitit bi the Vascones. Some scholars hae suggestit a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meanin "summit", "point" or "leaves", accordin tae which barscunes mey hae meant "the muntain fowk", "the taw anes" or "the proud anes", while ithers hae positit a relationship tae a proto-Indo-European ruit *bar- meanin "border", "frontier", "mairch".[13]

In Basque, Basques caw themselves euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- (i.e. "Basque (eid)") an -dun (i.e. "ane who haes"); euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. No aw Basques are Basque-speakers, an no aw Basque speakers are Basques; foreigners who hae learned Basque can an aw be cried euskaldunak. Therefore the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, wis coined in the 19t century tae mean an ethnically Basque body whether Basque-speakin or no. These Basque wirds are aw derivit frae euskara, the Basque name for the Basque leid.

Alfonso Irigoyen claimit that the wird euskara comes frae an auncient Basque verb enautsi "tae say" (cf. modren Basque esan) and the suffix -(k)ara ("way (o doin something)"). Thus euskara wad literally mean "way o sayin", "way o speakin". Ane item o evidence in favour o this hypothesis is foond in the Spainyie beuk Compendio Historial, written in 1571 bi the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay, who records the name o the Basque leid as "enusquera". It mey be housomeivver a writin mistake.

In the 19t century, the Basque naitionalist activist Sabino Arana positit an oreeginal ruit euzko which, he thought, came frae eguzkiko ("o the sun" on the assumption o an oreeginal solar religion). On the basis o this putative ruit Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque naition, composed bi seiven basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi, in the regularized spellin Euskadi, is still widely uised in baith Basque an Spainyie, syne it is nou the offeecial name o the Autonomous Commonty o the Basque Kintra.

It haes an aw been suggestit that the ruit o eusk- mey be linkit tae the Aquitanian tribe o the Ausci.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 IV. Inkesta Soziolinguistikoa Gobierno Vasco, Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco 2008, ISBN 978-84-457-2775-1
  2. "::: Euskonews & Media ::: Kosmopolita ::: Los nuevos vascos (I de II)". Euskonews.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  3. "La inmigración vasca en la Argentina". Juandegaray.org.ar. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  4. Mikel Soro/ (1997-12-01). "Diariovasco". Diariovasco. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  5. "entrevista al Presidente de la Cámara vasca". Deia.com. 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  6. vascos Ainara Madariaga: Autora del estudio "Imaginarios vascos desde Chile La construcción de imaginarios vascos en Chile durante el siglo XX".
  7. "Basques au Chili". Euskonews.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  8. Contacto Interlingüístico e intercultural en el mundo hispano. Instituto valenciano de lenguas y culturas, University of Valencia, citation: "Un 20% de la población chilena tiene su origen en el País Vasco".
  9. "Vascos en Cuba" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  10. "Vascos en Colombia" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  11. Joshua Project. "Ethnic groups - Costa Rica". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  12. Joshua Project. "Ethnic groups - Venezuela". Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  13. "Vascones - el nombre (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)". Euskomedia.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22.