IPA chairt for Scots

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This is a cutty version o the Internaitional Phonetic ABC for Scots soonds.

Vouels[eedit | eedit soorce]

Vouel chairt[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aw that's shawn here is the unnerlyin phonemes. The pyntit soondin, or allophones isna shawn. (fae Aitken 1984)

Scots vouels
 IPA   Examples 
8a əi aye, gey, Mey, pey, wey
10 jyne, pynt, ile, chyce
1 short1 bite, bide, price, wife, tide
1 lang1 ai five, size, fry, ay, kye, fire
2 i meet, need, see, deil, here, releegion, meenister
11 ee, dee, dree, lee, implee, denee
3 Merges wi 2, 4, or 8 gaun bi dialect meat, deid, heid, steal, peir, meir, seiven,
4 e aik, ait, saip, baith, stane2, hale, tae n., gae, late, pale, bathe, day, say, mair, care
8 e: Whiles merged wi 4 bait, braid, hail, pail, pair
5 o: Whiles merges wi 18 in the Sooth throat, coat, thole, rose, afore
18 ɔ Whiles merges wi 5 cot, God, on, loch, bocht, horse, Forth
6 u aboot, bouk, poupit, lood, pouder, shouder, room, mooth, hoose, loose, cou, nou, fou, pou, oo, oor, soor, ploum
7 ø North merged wi 2, Central an Sooth wi 4 lang an 15 short buit, fruit, guid, muin, uiss n., uise v., muive, dae, shae, muir, puir, shuir
9 oi Boyd, noise, boy
12 ɑ: / ɔ: Whiles merged wi 17 in the North faut, saut, fraud, mawn, auld, cauld, hauch, cause, law, snaw, aw, faw, twa, faur, daur, waur
13 ʌu nowt, cowt, gowf, sowder, lowse, chowe, growe, knowe, fower, ower, rowe
14 iu / ju duty, feud, heuk3, neuk3, beuch3, teuch3, news, dew, few, blue, true, pleuch3
15 ɪ bit, pit, fit, lid, hiss, gird, his, whither4, yird, wid, fir n.
16 ɛ met, bed, ledder, ser, Perth
17 a In the Sooth-Wast an Ulster merged wi 12 sat, lad, mar, gar, vase, warst, mar
19 ʌ butt, but, buss, buff, wird, fur n.

1. See the Scots vouel lenth rule.
2. In the North [e] afore [n] in <ane> merges wi 2.
3. Some o thir's the affcome o 7 afore [k] an [x] giein [(j)u] or [(j)ʌ] an aw.
4. [ɪ] efter [ʍ] an [w] aften merges wi 19.

Vouels athort sindry dialects[eedit | eedit soorce]

The allophones o the phonemes abuin afore /t/ in a puckle dialects. (fae Catford 1957, Gregg 1958, Dieth 1932)

Bute Lanrick-
Kircudbright Mid
Buchan Key
2 /i/  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i beet
3 /i, e/  e  e  e  e  e    e:  e- beat
8 /e:/  e:    ɛ̣:   bait
16 /ɛ/  ɛ̣  ɛ  ɛˑ  ɛ  ɛ̜  ɛ̜  ɛ:  ɛ  e met
17 /a/        ɑ    ɑ̈  ɑ:  ɑ̈  ɑ fat
12 /ɑ:, ɔ:/  o  ɔ  ɒ:  ɔ:  ɑ:  ɑ: faut
18 /ɔ/  o  o  o  ɔ  ɔ:    o cot
5 /o:/  o  o  o:  o:   1 coat
19 /ʌ/  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ  ʌ̫  ʌ cut
6 /u/    ʉ  u  u    u    u  u aboot
15 /ɪ/  ɜ  ɛ̈  ë̜    ɛ̈    ɪ̈ / æ̈  ɜ  ɪ bit
7 /ø/  ɪ  ɪ̈  ɪ̈  ɪ̈  ø  i buit 2

1. Richtly [kwəit] acause efter /k/ but ither gates /oˑ/ afore /t/.
2. in aw thir dialects, ceptna N.E. Angus an Buchan, in lang environs merged wi vouel 4 no shawn here.

Consonants[eedit | eedit soorce]

Consonant chairt[eedit | eedit soorce]

This is the Scots Consonant Seestem uisin IPA seembols.

  bilabial labio-
dental alveolar post-
palatal velar glottal labial-velar
plosive p  b   d̪  t̪ 1 t  d     k  g ʔ 4  
nasal m     n     ŋ    
flap       r          
fricative ɸ  β 2 f  v θ  ð s  z ʃ  ʒ ç 5 x 5 h  
affricate       ɕ  ʑ 3 tʃ  dʒ        
approximant       ɹ   j     ʍ6 w
lateral approximant       l, ɫ7          


1. [] an [] whiles kythes for /d/ an /t/ afore /(ə)r/ in Erse influenced dialects o Ulster an whiles in Gaelic influenced dialects in Scotland. Examples: attercap, bedrall, better, bowster, conseeder, craitur, draucht, straik, traivel.

2. [ɸ] an [β] whiles kythes for /f/ an /v/ in Erse influenced dialects o Ulster. For ordinar written <f> an <v>.

3. [ɕ] an [ʑ] whiles kythes for /ʃ/ an /ʒ/ in Erse influenced dialects o Ulster. Examples brainch, creash, cusion, fusionless, hinge, ingine. Seemilar wi [] an [] for // an // Examples: deuk, fadge, jaiket, juist, sodger, veelage, brooch, cabbitch, chimley, gilravage, steuchie, teuch.

4. [ʔ] kythes for /t/ atween twa vouels an wird final in mony dialects. Whiles for /k/ an /p/ an aw. Examples: butter, maiter, whit.

5. [ç] for ordinar wird ineetial or efter a front vouel an [x] efter a back vouel. Examples: hue, huge, human, heuk, laich, lauchter, loch, nicht, pech.

6. In northren dialects [ʍ] is aften soondit /f/ or [ɸ] an whiles /w/ in recent lend wirds. Example: wha whippit the white whalpie?

7. For ordinar [ɫ] but in airts whaur Gaelic wis no lang syne spak, e'en in Dumfries an Gallowa [l] micht kythe.

Semplifee'd or soondit ither[eedit | eedit soorce]

Antrin consonant clusters is semplifee'd or soondit different athort the dialects

/xt/ for ordinar written <cht> but whiles /θ/ in northren dialects. Examples: dochter, micht.

/gn/ for ordinar written <gn> bides sae in mony northren dialects but is semplifee'd tae /n/ in ithers. Examples: gnap, gnaw.

/kn/ for ordinar written <kn> bides sae in mony northren dialects or kythes as /tn/ but is semplifee'd tae /n/ in ithers. Examples: knee, knap, knowe.

/wr/ for ordinar semplifee'd tae /r/ but aiblins /vr/ in some northren dialects. Examples: wrack, wrang, write, wricht.

/ld/ an /nd/ is aften semplifee'd tae /l/ an /d/. Examples: auld, haund.

See forby[eedit | eedit soorce]