Otto IV o Brunswick (1175 – Mey 19, 1218) wis ane o twa rival keengs o the Holy Roman Empire frae 1198 on, sole keeng frae 1208 on, an emperor frae 1209 on. The anly keeng o the Welf dynasty, he incurred the wrath o Pape Innocent III an wis excommunicated in 1215.
↑Although Frederick II was crowned King of the Romans, King of Sicily, King of Jerusalem and Holy Roman Emperor, he never crowned King of Italy at Pavia, Monza or Milan during his lifetime - see Sismondi's History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages, (1906), pg. 143; 147 and Kington-Oliphant's, History of Frederick the Second, Emperor of the Romans, Vol I, (1862), pg. 195 which specifically state that the Milanese refused to crown Frederick with the Iron Crown. Neither is his coronation as King of Italy mentioned in any modern source, such as Abulafia's, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V: c. 1198-c. 1300, (1999)