Jalandhar (Punjabi: ਜਲੰਧਰ) is a ceety in Jalandhar Destrict in the state o Punjab, Indie. It is locatit 144 km northwast o the state caipital, Chandigarh. It wis kent as Prasthala at the time o the Mahabharta an as Jullundur in Breetish times.
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Jalandhar an Multan are the auldest survivin ceeties o the Punjab region, wi historical references as far back as A.D. 100. The Jalandhar Doab (the region surroondin the ceety atween the Beas an Sutlej rivers) an aa marked the eastmaist territory o the empire o Alexander the Great. He erectit giant altars in this aurie tae mark the eastren maist extent o his empire an an aw foondit a ceety named Alexandria in the vicinity an left mony Macedonian veterans there.
In the 7t century, when the famous Cheenese traveller an pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visitit Indie durin the reign o Harsha Vardhana, the Kinrick o Jalandhara or Trigarta wis unner the rule o Raja Utito (whom Alexander Cunningham identifees wi the Rajput Raja Attar Chand o the Katoch dynasty). The kinrick wis said tae hae extendit 167 miles (269 km) frae east tae wast an 133 miles (214 km) frae north tae sooth, thus includin the hill states o Chamba, Mandi an Suket (Himachal Pradesh) an Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. The ceety proper o Jalandhar wis, when visitit bi Hiuen Tsiang, a lairge ceety, miles in circuit, an functioned as the caipital o a Rajput kinrick. Raja Utito wis a tributary o Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear tae hae continued tae rule ower the kintra richt up tae the 12t century, wi occasional interruptions, but their caipital wis Jalandhar an Kangra formed an important stranghauld.
Accordin tae the Cheenese pilgrim Fa Hien, who traveled Indie atween 399 an 411 C.E., there wur a great mony Viharas o Buddhism in Indie. In the Jalandhar Doab, there wur as mony as 50 Viharas o Buddhism. The Buddhist releegion wis adoptit bi a lairge number o fowk. As per some historians an scholars the fowert Buddhist Cooncil oot o total sax Buddhist Cooncils teuk place in Jalandhar in the first century AD durin the reign o Keeng Kanishka. The fowert cooncil o Mahayana Buddhism teuk place here, an placed Buddha as a God at the cooncil.
Jalandhar became the seat o Nath muivement frae 8t tae 10t century AD, ane o its greatest saunt wis Jalandhar Nath, whose samadhi later became the steid o the existin shrine o Imam Nasir-ud-din Chishti in the fifteent century. Frae the later hauf o the tent century up tae AD 1019, the destrict wis includit in the Shahi Kinrick o the Punjab an Jalandhar wis an important ceety in the region. In aboot 1188 it fell tae the control o Ibrahim Shah o Ghor. Unner the Mughals Jalandhar wis the caipital o a sarkar.
In 1758 Maharaja Ghamand Chand o the Katoch dynasty wis made the (first iver Rajput) Nizam o Jalandhar bi the Durranis. Mony Rajputs lived in an aroond the surroondin auries o Jalandhar afore the pairtition in 1947. Wi the pairtition o the kintra, mony like the Manj an Rawal Rajputs went tae settle in the Pakistan side o the Punjab, whilst some went tae ither kintras.
Jalandhar wis captured bi the Sikhs in 1757 an captured bi the Faizullahpuria confederacy in 1766. Ranjit Singh annexed it in 1811, an in 1846 Jalandhar became the heidquarters o the territory acquired bi the Breetish efter the first First Anglo-Sikh Wars. Durin Breetish rule Jalandhar became the heidquarters, o the Diveesion an Destrict o the same name. Durin 1939 tae 1945, C.M. Ormerod wis the Deputy Commissioner o Jalandhar destrict. He wis in chairge o Land Revenue depairtment an chairman o Destrict Board tae admeenister Roads, Hospitals, an schuils in the fower subdiveesion o Jalandhar destrict, namely Jalandhar, Nakodar, Philaur, an Nawanshahr. Destrict Board wis composed o committee members nominatit bi DC frae each subdiveesion. The secretary o the Destrict Board wis Sardar Narinder Singh frae veelage Shankar an prominent members wur Sardar Santa Singh Zaildar frae Jalandhar subdiveesion an Sardar Gurbachan Singh Zaildar frae veelage Garhpadhana subdiveesion Nawanshahr. The last commissioner o Jalandhar in 1949 wis Mr Fletcher afore an Indie naitional teuk ower this position. In 1947 wi the unthirldom an pairtition o Indie the Muslim population left for Pakistan while Hindus an Sikhs arrived frae the ither direction.
The ceety haes a humid subtropical climate wi ceul winters an hot simmers. Simmers last frae Aprile tae Juin an winters frae November tae Februar. Temperaturs in the simmer vary frae average heichs o aroond 48 °C (118 °F) tae average laws o aroond 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperaturs vary frae heichs o 19 °C (66 °F) tae laws of −5 °C (23 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except durin the brief soothwast monsoon saison durin Julie an August. The average annual rainfaw is aboot 70 cm.
Jalandhar haes numerous hospitals, includin Mahajan Eye Hospital, Thind Eye Hospital, Patel Hospital, Tagore Hospital, Lajwanti Hospital, Oxford Hospital, Pruthi Hospital, Guru Nanak Mission Hospital, Ruby Hospital, an Ghai Hospital. Although each hospital haes its awn identity, Mahajan Eye Hospital an Thind Eye Hospital are on the warld map for their Lasik treatments. Jalandhar is an aa the warld's biggest manufacturer o leather tool pouches an aprons; major American an European customers buy frae factories in Jalandhar. It is the biggest suppleer o sports material in the kintra. Jalandhar wis a hub o the Gandhi govrenment's green revolution o Indie in the early 1960s. Dr. Dilbag Singh Athwal, a renouned scientist in plant breedin, developed Indie's first heich-yield wheat, Kalyan. The wheat he named efter his native veelage Kalyanpur, 6 miles (9.7 km) soothwast o Jalandhar. Later, Dr. Athwal heidit the International Rice Research Institute an the International Agricultural Development Service. Dr. Athwal teuk early retirement frae his position as senior vice preses Rockefeller Institute. The veelage Kalyanpur (nou pairt o Jalandhar) haes produced prominent scientists includin Dr. Raghbir Singh, Dr. Rajbir Kaur, an Dr. Iqbal Singh Athwal. Jalandhar an aa haes an electrical guids industry. Manufacturers like Hazel India, Standard Switchgears an Apex Electricals are locatit in Jalandhar. An internaitional sports mercat is situatit in Jalandhar. Major sports brands such as BAS Vampire, Bhaseen's Baspo, JJ Jonex, an Syndicate Sports come frae this pairt o the warld. Jalandhar is an aa ken for thrust bearins an ball bearins; braunds such as BKE, IBI an KKK belang tae the ceety.
Posh Localities: Master Mota Singh Nagar, Model Toun, Jawahar Nagar & Udham Singh Nagar
The first leid o maist fowk in the ceety is Punjabi. Punjabi is the offeecial leid o the ceety o Jalandhar. Due tae warm an enterprisin natur o Punjabis, fowk frae different culturs are settlin here, enrichin the ceety wi new leids such as Hindi, Inglis, Rajasthani, Himachali etc.
The ceety serves as the region's heidquarters for newspapers, naitional televeesion an radio stations.
- Daily Nawan Zamana
- Rozana Ajit (Daily Ajit)
- Akali Patrika
- Amar Ujala
- Dainik Jagran
- Dainik Bhaskar
- Punjab Kesari
- Hind Samachar (Urdu)
- Doaba Headlines
- Hindustan Times
- The Tribune
Local radio stations include:
- Main airticle: Leet o educational institutions in Punjab
Jalandhar ceety haes a big beuk mercat whaur a variety o beuks can be bought or sauld. This mercat aurie is kent as Main Hira Gate or Adda Tanda Road. Modern Book Depot, Subhash Book Depot an Gupta Book Depot are some o the auldest beukshops. Also there are many learning centres such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS).
Jalandhar Cantonment 
Construction on Jalandhar Cantonment began in 1848. It is notable no anerlie for its age, as it amang the auldest cantonments in the kintra, but an aa for its proximity tae Pakistan. It figured in the 1920 Connaught Rangers mutiny when Erse sodgers replaced the Union Banner wi the Erse Republic's flag.
Veelages aroond Jalandhar 
Sansarpur, Jamsher Khas, Talhan, Salempur Masanda, Parasrampur, Gillaan, Gakhal an Kukar Pind Patara, Sarai-khas. Wariana. Heerapur, Hailer, Rajowal, Sangalsohl, Mand. Nagra, Nandanpur, Mirpur, Kotli, Gazipur, Fateh Jalaal, Soora, Nussi, Lambra, Rasoolpur, Talwandi Bharo, Hairan, Parjian, Malian, Uggi, Chitti, Khaira Majha, Pattar Kalan, Pattarkhurd, Nangal Manoor, Mudh, Sial, Sarhali, Lammapind, Shekha, Dhogri, Chuhrowali, Kalabakra, Daroli kalan, Diwali, Dhina, Salempur, Talwan, Jandiala, Sangha Khalsa, Bhagala, RamaMandi, Dakoha, Dhannowali, Ladhewali, Littran, Shafipur, Chachoki, Jandusingha, Singhpura. Daduwal, Semi, Khajurla, Bidhipur/Gopalpur, Khusropur, Takharan.
- tourism. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved on 1 Apryle 2009. .
- Jullundur Town - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 231.
- Hugh Tinker (1966). South Asia: A Short History. Frederick A. Praeger.
- Jalandhar Govrenment o Punjab, Indie wabsteid
- Refuge in memories - Dawn
- Jalandhar Cantt. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved on 1 Apryle 2009. .
- Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Encyclopedia of Jalandhar, 2004, published by The Sikh University Press Belgium.
Freemit airtins 
- Offeecial wabsteid
- Paper aboot the Jalandhari presence in the UK, Centre for Applied South Asian Studies (CASAS)