Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 Mairch 1727 bi the Julian calendar in uiss in Ingland at the time; or 4 Januar 1643 – 31 Mairch 1727 bi the Gregorian calendar) wis an Inglish pheesicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher an alchemist that wrate the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In it he descrieved universal gravitation an, throu his laws o motion, laid the foonds for classical mechanics. Newton wis the man that developed the differential calculus an aw daein sae thirty year afore Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz that aften shares the credit.
Newton wis the first tae mak a set o mathematical laws that coud predeect baith ordinar motion an celestial motion. He is associate wi the scientific revolution an the forder o heliocentrism. Newton is creeditit forby wi providin mathematical substantiation for Kepler's laws o planetary motion. He wad rax thir laws bi shawin that orbits (sic as the orbits o comets) wisna juist elliptic, but coud be hyperbolic an parabolic an aw. He is kenspeckle for his arguments that licht wis componed o particles an aw. He wis the first tae feegur that the spectrum o colour seen whan white licht passes throu a prism is inherent in the white licht an no eikit bi the prism as Roger Bacon haed thocht in the 13t century.
Forby thon Newton developed a law o cuilin, descrievin the rate o cuilin for objects whan exposed ti the air; the hale binomial theorem; an the preenciples o conservation o momentum an angular momentum. Finally, he studied the speed o soond in air, an spak aboot a theory on the oreegin o starns.
Newton's laws o motion an gravity gied awbody the foonds for spaein mony sindry scienteefic or ingineerin situations, especially the motion o celestial bodies. His calculus pruived gey important ti the oncome o further scienteefic theories. Finally, he pit mony o the aesome pheesics facts that haed been discovert afore thegither intil a saitisfeein seestem o laws. For this, he is conseidert ane o history's greatest scientists, rankin abuin sic feegurs as Einstein an Gauss.
Quotations anent Newton
"The Principia is pre-eminent above any other production of human genius." —Pierre-Simon Laplace
"Taking mathematics from the beginning of the world to the time when Newton lived, what he has done is much the better part." —Leibniz
"All that has been accomplished in mathematics since his day has been a deductive, formal, and mathematical development of mechanics on the basis of Newton's laws." —Ernst Mach
"Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night: God said, Let Newton be! and all was light." —poem, Alexander Pope
- John Maynard Keynes, Essays in Biography, W W Norton & Co, 1963, paperback, ISBN 0-393-00189-X. Keynes had taken a close interest in Newton and owned many of Newton's private papers.
- Isaac Newton, Papers and Letters in Natural Philosophy, edited by I. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-674-46853-8 Harvard 1958,1978
- Michael H. Hart, The 100, Carol Publishing Group, July 1992, paperback, 576 pages, ISBN 0-8065-1350-0
- Simmons, J, The giant book of scientists -- The 100 greatest minds of all time, Sydney: The Book Company, (1996)
- Isaac Newton (1642-1727), The Principia: a new Translation, Guide by I. Bernard Cohen ISBN 0-520-08817-4 University of California 1999 Warning: common mistranslations exposed!
- Berlinski, David, Newton's Gift:How Sir Isaac Newton Unlocked the System of our World, ISBN 0-684-84392-7 (hardback), also in paperback, Simon & Schuster, 2000
- Stephen Hawking, ed. On the Shoulders of Giants, ISBN 0-7624-1348-5 Places selections from Newton's Principia in the context of selected writings by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo and Einstein.
- James Gleick, Isaac Newton, Knopf, 2003, hardcover, 288 pages, ISBN 0-375-42233-1
- Sir Isaac Newton Scientist and Mathematician by Lucidcafé
- Isaac Newton Directory
- Newton Research Project
- Rebuttal of Newton as an astrologer
- Newton Reconsidered, an interview with Newton scholar Stephen D. Snobelen at the Galilean Library
- March 5-June 12, 2005 Isaac Newton's personal copy of Principia on display at Huntington Library
- Newton's Reports as Master of the Royal Mint
- Newton's Theorem: Newton's line in a circumscribed quadrilateral. by Antonio Gutierrez from "Geometry Step by Step from the Land of the Incas"
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry on Newton's views on space, time, and motion
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