Hebron

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Hebron (Arabic: Aboot this soond الخليل  al-Ḫalīl; Hebrew: Aboot this soond חֶבְרוֹן , Staundart Ebreu: Ḥevron, Tiberian: Ḥeḇrôn), is a Palestinian ceety locatit in the soothren Wast Bank, 30 km (19 mi) sooth o Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judean Muntains, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) abuin sea level. It is the lairgest cieety in the Wast Bank an hame tae aroond 165,000 Palestinians,[1] an ower 500 Jewish settlers concentratit in an aroond the auld quarter.[2][3][4][5][6] The ceety is maist notable for containin the traditional burial site o the biblical Patriarchs an Matriarchs an is therefore considered the seicont-holiest ceety in Judaism efter Jerusalem.[7] The ceety is an aa veneratit bi Muslims for its association wi Abraham[8] an wis traditonally viewed as ane o the "fower holy ceeties o Islam."[9][10][11][12]

Hebron is a busy hub o Wast Bank trade, responsible for roughly a third o the aurie's gross domestic product, lairgely due tae the sale o marble frae quarries.[13] It is locally well-kent for its grapes, figs, limestane, pottery wirkshops an glassblowing factories, an is the location o the major dairy product manufacturer, al-Junaidi. The auld ceety o Hebron is characterized bi narrow, windin streets, flat-ruifed stane hooses, an auld bazaars. The ceety is hame tae Hebron University an the Palestine Polytechnic University.[14][15][16][17][18]

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The name "Hebron" traces back tae twae Semitic ruits, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, haein reflexes in Ebreu, Amorite an Arabic, an denotin a range o meanins frae "colleague", "unite", "friend" or "tae be noisy". In the proper name Hebron, the sense mey be alliance.[19] In Arabic, Ibrahim al-Khalil (إبراهيم الخليل) means "Abraham the friend", accordin tae Islamic teachin signifyin that, God chose Abraham as his friend.[20]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 2007 Locality Population Statistics Hebron Governorate Population, Housing and Establishment Census 2007. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  2. Palestinian security forces deploy in Hebron 25/10/2008 gives about 500 as of October 2008
  3. Deborah Campbell, This Heated Place: Encounters in the Promised Land, Douglas & McIntyre, 2004 p. 63; James L. Gelvin, The Israel–Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War,Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 190; Jerry Levin West Bank Diary: Middle East Violence as Reported by a Former American Hostage, Hope Publishing House, 2005 p. 26;Antony Loewenstein,My Israel Question: Reframing the Israel/Palestine Conflict, Melbourne University Publishing, 2006, p. 47; Robin Wright,Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East, Penguin Group, 2008, p. 38
  4. For the figure o 700 settlers, see Jennifer Medina, "'Settlers’ Defiance Reflects Postwar Israeli Changes", The New York Times, April 22, 2007
  5. For the figure of 800 settlers, see Yaakov Katz, Tovah Lazaroff, "Hebron settlers try to buy more homes", The Jerusalem Post, April 14, 2007
  6. "Historical background on the Hebron Jewish Quarter". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  7. "Hebron". Virtual Israel Experience. Jewish Virtual Library. 
  8. Cultural encounters with the environment: enduring and evolving geographic themes, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000 chapter Sharing Sacred Space in the Holy Land by Chad F. Emmett, pg. 271
  9. The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church, Volume 7, pg. 185, Charles George Herbermann et al, The Catholic Encyclopedia Inc., 1913. "For these reasons after the Arab conquest of 637 Hebron "was chosen as one of the four holy cities of Islam."
  10. Virginia H. Aksan; Daniel Goffman (2007). The early modern Ottomans: remapping the Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780521817646. Retrieved 13 October 2010. "Suleyman considered himself the ruler of the four holy cities of Islam, and, along with Mecca and Medina, included Hebron and Jerusalem in his rather lengthly list of official titles." 
  11. History teacher's magazine. McKinley Publishing Company. 1918. p. 481. Retrieved 15 October 2010. "...that in his land are to be found the four holy cities, Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, and Hebron..." 
  12. The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 4, Johannes Hendrik Kramers and Joseph Schacht (eds), Brill, 1954
  13. Zacharia, Janine (2010-03-08). "Letter from the West Bank: In Hebron, renovation of holy site sets off strife". Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-03-29. 
  14. Hebron University Hebron University, P O Box 40, Hebron. West Bank, Palestine. Telephone: +970-2-2220995
  15. Abu, Khaled (2008-04-13). "Jpost". Jpost. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  16. "PPU Library Hebron". Library.ppu.edu. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  17. "UNESCO". Portal.unesco.org. Retrieved 2009-11-12. 
  18. Time Higher education Hebron welcomes pull-out by Helena Flusfeder in Hebron 24 January 1997
  19. cf. Amorite ḥibrum. More generally, see G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry, Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans 1974,ISBN 0-8028-2329-7 pp. 193ff. The root has magical overtones, and develops pejorative connotations in late Biblical usage
  20. Surah 4 Aya (verse) 125, Qur'an (source text)