Frank Lloyd Wright

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Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright portrait.jpg
Born Frank Lincoln Wright
Juin 8, 1867(1867-06-08)
Richland Center, Wisconsin[1]
Died Aprile 9, 1959(1959-04-09) (agit 91)
Phoenix, Arizona[2]
Cause o daith
Surgery
Naitionality American
Eddication Madison High School
Alma mater University of Wisconsin-Madison
Home toun Chicago, Illinois
Hicht 5' 7" (1.70 m)
Releegion Unitarian[3]
Spoose(s) Catherine Wright (m. 1889–1922),
Maude Wright (m. 1923–27),
Olgivanna Wright (m. 1928–59)
Childer Lloyd Wright · John Lloyd Wright · Catherine Baxter · Svetlana Milanoff · Catherine Wright · Frances Wright · David Wright · Iovanna Wright
Parents William Carey Wright
Anna Lloyd Jones
Signatur Frank Lloyd Wright signature.svg

Frank Lloyd Wright (Frank Lincoln Wright; 8 Juin, 18679 Aprile 1959) wis a famous American airchitect frae the early 20t centurie. He designit aw kinds o biggins includin banks, holiday resorts, office biggins, kirks, a synagogue, a gas station, a beer garden an an airt museum.[4]

Wright designit mair nor 1,000 structurs an completit 532 works. Wright believit in designin structurs which wur in peace wi humanity an its environment. He callit his belief organic airchitectur.[5] He uised this technique for his design for Fallingwater (1935), which has been cried "the best aw-time wirk o American airchitectur".[5] Wright wis a leader o the Prairie School movement o airchitectur an developit the image o the Usonian home, his ane-o-a-kind veesion for urban plannin in the Unitit States.

He began an American style of buildin design an is said tae be one o the greatest airchitects o the twentiet centurie.[6]

Wright wis born in Richland Center, Wisconsin on 8 Juin 1867 tae a fermin faimily.[7]

His work includes oreeginal an creative examples o mony biggin types. Wright an aa designit mony o the interior elements o his biggins, such as the furnitur an stained glass. Wright authorit 20 beuks an mony airticles an wis a popular lecturer in the Unitit States an in Europe.

His colorful personal life eften made heidlines, maist notably for the 1914 fire an murders at his Taliesin studio. Already well-kent durin his lifetime, Wright wis recognizit in 1991 bi the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American airchitect o aw time."[5]

Wright deit on 9 Aprile, 1959 in Phoenix, Arizona frae surgical complications.[8] He wis 91 years auld.[8]

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright wis born in the fermin toun o Richland Center, Wisconsin, Unitit States, on 8 Juin 1867.[7] He wis born Frank Lincoln Wright.[9] His father, William Carey Wright (1825–1904)[10], wis a locally admirit speaker, muisic teacher, sometimes a lawyer, an meenister. William Wright had met an marriit Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39 – 1923)[10], a coonty schuil teacher o Welsh strynd.

Early career[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright's first well-kent biggin, the Larkin Administration Buildin

Wright did nae get alang well wi ether draftsmen. He wrote that several violent events happenit atween them durin the first years o his apprenticeship. Efterwards mony ither draftsmen shawed very little respect for his employees as well.[11] In spite o this, "Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design responsibility." As an act o respect, Wright would later refer tae Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master").[12] Wright an aa formit a bond wi office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright would later engage Mueller tae big several o his public an commercial biggins atween 1903 an 1923.[13]

As Wright began tae wirk on residential projects for Adler & Sullivan.[14] Wright designit his hooses on his ain time. Sullivan knew nothin o Wright's wirks till 1893, when he recognizit that one o the hooses wis a Frank Lloyd Wright design.[14] This particular hoose, biggit for Allison Harlan, wis anly blocks away frae Sullivan's tounhoose in the Chicago commonty o Kenwood.[14]

Famous buildins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater, the hoose ower the watterfaw.

Fallingwater[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright designit a summer-hoose in 1935 for the Kaufmann faimily ower a watterfaw in Pennsylvania. He callit the hoose "Fallingwater". Some fowk say it is the maist famous private home in the warld.[15]

The hoose actually sits law in the valley ower the stream, but leuks dramatic frae further dounstream.[16] It haes lairge terraces, an some o them stick straight oot an hang ower the watterfaw or the stream. Thare are windows an glass doors, wi only narrow steel supports atween them, wrappin aw the way aroond the livin ruim.

There are an aa windows gangin aw the way frae the fluir tae the ceilin in aw three stories o the touer.[16] [5]

Maist o the hoose is made frae stane. Thare are strang horizontal an vertical lines in the design o the hoose. It resembles the horizontal an vertical lines in the rock formations an ither naitural featurs.[16] The watterfaw can be heard everywhaur in the hoose. Wright wantit thare tae be a close connection atween inside an ootside, an for the hoose itself tae be naitural.[17]

In 1991, members o the American Institute of Architects named the Fallingwater hoose the "best aw-time work o American airchitectur".[18]

Robie House[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Robie House

Ane famous hoose wis cried the Robie House. It haed a maze lik layoot an geometric stainit glass windows.[19] The Robie House wis a unique hoose wi odd shapes, colours an form. He finishit makin it in 1910, as a hoose for childer. In fact, mony childer livit an playit in that hoose wi thair faimilies up till 1926 when it wis closed for livin in, an closit tae the public. Mony times, it wis planned tae be destroyit. However, twice, Wright savit his hoose frae destruction acause o the reasons he biggit it an aw the memories o it that he lovit so much. It is nou bein restorit at a cost o $10 million.[20]

Johnson Wax Headquarters[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Johnson Wax Headquarters

Anither famous biggin bi Wright wis cried the Johnson Wax Headquarters.[21] The biggin haes Wright's idea o the streamlinit Art Moderne style popular in the 1930s. In a break wi Wright's earlier Prairie School structurs, the biggin featurs mony circular forms an needit ower 200 different curvit "Cherokee red" bricks tae create the sweepin curves o the inside an ootside.[21]

The mortar atween the bricks wis creatit in tradeetional Wright-style tae gie the horizontality o the biggin.[21] The warm, reddish hue o the bricks wis usit in the polishit concrete fluir as well.[21] The white stane trim an white columns create a slicht yet strikin difference. Aw o the furnitur, creatit bi Steelcase, wis designit for the biggin bi Wright an it mirrorit mony o the biggin's unique design featurs.[21]

The entrance is in the structur, enterin the biggin on ane side wi a coverit carport on the ither.[21] The carport is supportit bi short versions o the steel-reinforcit (tree-lik) concrete columns that appear in the Great Workroom.[21]

The Illinois[eedit | eedit soorce]

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Wright proponed tae big a skyscraper callit The Illinois that would be the hicht o a distance o a mile.[22] It wis intendit tae be constructit in Chicago, Illinois. It could hae includit 528 stories, wi a gross area o 18,460,000 square feet (1,715,000 m2).[22] Wright statit that thare would be parkin for 15,000 caurs an 150 helicopters.[22]

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York Ceety. Wright workit on this project for 16 years (1943–1959) an is probably his maist recognizit masterpiece.[23] The biggin is locatit in Fifth Avenue. Its interior is similar tae the inside o a seashell.[23]

Its one o a kind central geometry was createit tae allow visitors tae easily see Guggenheim's collection of his paintins by takin an elevator tae the top-level and then viewin artworks by walkin down the slowly descendin, central spiral ramp, the floor o which is lodgit wi circular shapes and triangular light bulbs tae complement the geometric nature o the buildin.[23]

However, when the museum was completit, some o Wright's design were ignorit, such as his desire for the interior tae be paintit off-white.[23] Further, the Museum currently designs exhibits tae be viewit bi walkin up the curvit walkway wioot walkin doun frae the tap-level.[23]

Later career[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright strangly believit in wirkin alane.[24] He did nae support the American Institute of Architects durin his career, goin so far as tae caw the organization "a harbor o refuge for the incompetent," an "a form o refined gangsterism."[24] When an the Institute cried him "an auld amateur" Wright later respondit, "I am the auldest."[24] In 1940, Wright startit the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. It wis set up for eddicational purposes. It leuks efter twa Wright biggins, Taliesin East in Wisconsin, an Taliesin West in Arizona. It haes a library wi mair than 22,000 o Wright's drawins, an 300,000 documents. It is home tae the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture.[25]

Personal life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright in 1954

Frank Lloyd Wright wis marrit three times an faitherit seiven childer, fower sons an three daughters. He an aa adoptit Svetlana Milanoff, the dauchter o his third wife, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright.[26] Wright ance had an apprentice who wis marrit tae Joseph Stalin's dauchter.[27]

His wives were:

  • Catherine "Kitty" (Tobin) Wright (1871–1959); social worker, socialite (marriit in Juin 1889; divorcit November 1922)
  • Maude "Miriam" (Noel) Wright (1869–1930), airtist (marrit in November 1923; divorcit August 1927)
  • Olga Ivanovna "Olgivanna" (Lazovich Milanoff) Lloyd Wright (1897–1985), dancer an writer (marrit in August 1928)

The Oscar-winnin actress Anne Baxter wis Wright's granddauchter.[28]

Daith[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright deit on 9 Aprile 1959, while undergangin surgery in Phoenix, Arizona, tae remove an intestinal obstruction.[8] His third wife, Olgivanna would die in 1985.[29] Wright wis soon burit in Unity Chapel in Wisconsin. Years later, his remains were crematit.

Frank Lloyd Wright's postage stamp published in 1966

Legacy[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1966, the Unitit States Postal Service honorit Wright wi a Prominent Americans series 2¢ postage stamp.[30] Several of Wright's buildins have been proposit by the Unitit States tae be UNESCO World Heritage sites.[31]

Shortly efter his daith, Simon & Garfunkel recordit So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright as a tribute tae Wright.[32]

In 2000, Fallingwater wis namit "The Building of the 20th century" in "Top-Ten" poll taken bi members attendin the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[33] On that leet, Wright wis leetit alang with mony o the USA's ither greatest airchitects includin Eero Saarinen, I. M. Pei, Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson an Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. He wis the anly airchitect who haed mair nor ane buildin on the leet. The ither three biggins were the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C. Robie House an the Johnson Wax Headquarters.[34]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Wright on the Web: The Early Years". www.delmars.com. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  2. "Wright on the Web: The Fifties". www.delmars.com. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  3. "FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT: UNITARIAN ARCHITECT 1867- 1959". Harvard Square Library.com. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  4. "Frank Lloyd Wright . Life and Work". www.pbs.org. Retrieved May 18, 2009. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Brewster, Mike (July 28, 2004). "Frank Lloyd Wright: America's Architect". Business Week (The McGraw-Hill Companies). Retrieved January 22, 2008. 
  6. "About Frank Lloyd Wright". www.wrightplus.org. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Frank Lloyd Wright biography". Browse biography.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Frank Lloyd Wright Dies; Famed Architect Was 89". nytimes.com. April 10, 1959. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  9. "Frank Lincoln Wright. American Literature". Man Museum.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Frank Lloyd Wright". Historic Madison, Inc. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  11. Wright 2005, pp. 89–94.
  12. Tafel, Edgar (1985). Years With Frank lloyd Wright: Apprentice to Genius. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. p. 31. ISBN 0-486-24801-1. 
  13. Saint, Andrew (May 2004). "Frank Lloyd Wright an Paul Mueller: the architect an his bigger o chyce". Architectural Research Quarterly (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) 7 (2): 157–167. doi:10.1017/S1359135503002112. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "Frank Lloyd Wright Works for Adler & Sullivan". World History Project.com. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  15. Fallingwater Rising: Frank Lloyd Wright, E. J. Kaufmann, and America's Most Extraordinary House, Franklin Toker, Knopf, 2003, ISBN 1400040264.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 "What is Fallingwater?". Fallingwater.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  17. "Fallingwater: Frank Lloyd Wright's masterpiece house above the waterfall". Wright House.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. .
  18. "The Fallingwater". CSUPomona.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  19. "Stained-Glass Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright". Grainger Arts and Crafts Studio.com. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  20. "Robie House Restoration Project". www.wrightplus.org. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 "Administration and Research Tower, S.C. Johnson Company". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 "Dubai Debt: What the Burj Khalifa—the tallest building in the world—owes to Frank Lloyd Wright.". Slate.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 "Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum". Guggenheim.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 "Biography in Sound: Frank Lloyd Wright". Old Time Radio. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  25. "About Us". www.franklloydwright.org. Retrieved May 18, 2008. 
  26. ascedia.com. "Taliesin Preservation, Inc. – Frank Lloyd Wright – FAQs". Taliesinpreservation.org. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2009. 
  27. "Frank Lloyd Wright". www.steinerag.com. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  28. "Anne Baxter genealogy". Ancestry.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  29. "REBURIAL OF FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT TOUCHES OFF A STORMY DEBATE". New York Times.com. Retrieved August 31, 2013. 
  30. "Frank Lloyd Wright Stamp". Miregestudio7.com. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  31. "Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings - UNESCO World Heritage Site". UNESCO.org. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  32. "So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright". Allmusic. Retrieved July 18, 2011. 
  33. "Fallingwater". U-S History.com. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 
  34. "Honoring Frank Lloyd Wright". AIA.org. Retrieved September 2, 2013. 

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