William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror (French: Guillaume le Conquérant) (circa 1028 – 9 September 1087), an aa kent as William I o Ingland (Guillaume Ier d’Angleterre) an William II o Normandy (Guillaume II de Normandie), wis the first Norman Keeng o Ingland frae Christmas, 1066 till his daith. He wis an aa Duke o Normandy frae 3 Julie 1035 till his daith. Afore his conquest o Ingland, he wis kent as William the Bastard (Guillaume le Bâtard) acause o the illegitimacy o his birth.
Tae press his claim tae the Inglis croun, William invadit Ingland in 1066, leadin an airmy o Normans, Bretons, Flemings, an Frenchmen (frae Paris an Île-de-France) tae victory ower the Inglis forces o Keeng Harold Godwinson at the Battle o Hastings, an suppressed subsequent Inglis revolts in wha haes become kent as the Norman Conquest. His reign, which brought Norman-French cultur tae Ingland, haed an impact on the subsequent course o Ingland in the Middle Ages. The details o that impact an the extent o the chynges hae been debatit bi scholars for centuries. In addition to the obvious change o ruler, his reign an aa saw a programme o biggin an fortification, chynges tae the Inglis leid, a shift in the upper levels o society an the kirk, an adoption o some aspects o continental kirk reform.