Ranunculaceae

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Ranunculaceae
Temporal range: CretaceousRecent[1]
Ranunculus auricomus (type species)
Scienteefic classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Juss.
Subfaimilies

Ranunculaceae (buttercup or crowfoot faimily; Latin rānunculus "little frog", frae rāna "frog") is a faimily o aboot 1700 species o flouerin plants in aboot 60 genera, distributit warldwide.

The lairgest genera are Ranunculus (600 speshies), Delphinium (365), Thalictrum (330), Clematis (325), an Aconitum (300).

Description[eedit | eedit soorce]

Achenes on the fruit o Pulsatilla alpina ssp. alpina.

Ranunculaceae are maistly yerbaceous plants, but wi some widy climbers (such as Clematis) an subshrubs (e.g. Xanthorhiza).

Flouer diagram o Adonis autumnalis frae Strasburger et al. 1900

Memmers o the Ranunculaceae uisually hae five coloured sepals instead o petals (except buttercups), an dividit leaves an nonwidy tissue (except clematis). [1] Leaves are uisually dividit or lobed, but are heart-shaped or narrow an undividit in some speshies o Ranunculus, an uisually arise frae the base o the plant, or alternately up the stem, but in Clematis thay are opposite. Perennial speshies furm smaa rhizomes or tubers which develop new ruits each year.

Flouers mey be solitary, but are frequently foond aggregatit in cymes, panicles, or spikes. Mony speshies hae na true petals, an the 'flouer' is furmed bi a brichtly coloured group o sepals cried a calyx. Thare are uisually five sepals per flouer, tho thay come in a wide variety o shapes. Ranunculus (buttercups) is the anly genus in this faimily wi a true calyx an petals. Thare are mony stamens surroundin mony fused carpels.

The fruit is maist commonly a follicle (e. g. Helleborus, Nigella) or an achene (e. g. Ranunculus, Clematis).

Ranunculaceae contain protoanemonin, which is toxic tae humans an ainimals. Ither poisonous or toxic compooonds, alkaloids an glycosides, are an aa very common.

Taxonomy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The faimily Ranunculaceae is includit in the Ranunculales which is the sole order o the Ranunculanae, a superorder o eudicots accordin tae APG 3 systematics. The phylogeny is well illustratit in [2]

Taxonomic comparisons[eedit | eedit soorce]

­Accordin tae Dr John David, (2010)[3] the Ranuculaceae are combined wi the Eupteleaceae, Lardizabalaceae, Menispermaceae, Berberidaceae, an Papaveraceae in the Ranunculales, the anly order in the superorder Ranunculanae. This follaes the wirk o the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.

Takhtajan 1997 includes the Ranunculaceae as the anly faimily in the Ranunculales which he placed in a subclass, the Ranunculidae, instead o a superorder. Previously, Thorn 1992 placed the Ranunculaceae in the Berberidales, an order within the Superorder Magnolianae. Earlier Cronquist in 1981 includit the Ranunculaceae along wi seiven ether faimilies in the Rancunculales which wis includit in the Magnoliidae, which he regardit as a subclass.[4]

The cladogram belaw is accordin tae the APG II seestem, based on molecular phylogeny.




Glaucidoideae



Hydrastidoideae





Coptoideae




Ranunculoideae



Thalictroideae





The genus Glaucidium wis ance put in its ain faimily (Glaucidiaceae), but haes been recently recognised as a primitive memmer o Ranunculaceae. Tamura (1993) recognised five subfaimilies, mainly based on chromosomic an floral characteristics (Hydrastidoideae, Thalictroideae, Isopyroideae, Ranunculoideae, Helleboroideae).

Hydrastidoideae an Glaucidioideae hae anly ane species, Hydrastis canadense an Glaucidium palmatum respectively. Coptoideae haes 17 species an Thalictroideae haes 450, includin Thalictrum an Aquilegia. The ither genera (2025 species, 81% o the faimily) belang tae Ranunculoideae.

Some aulder classifications includit Paeonia (peony) in Ranunculaceae but this genus is nou placed in its ain faimily, Paeoniaceae in order Saxifragales. Circaeaster an Kingdonia are nou placed in Circaeasteraceae.

Fossil record[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fossils o fruits, pollen, seeds, an leaves are kent frae several dozen locations. The fossil record begins in the early Cretaceous an continues throughoot the Tertiary. In maist cases, the fossils are assigned tae extant genera, or show a close relationship tae a particular extant genus.[1]

Uises[eedit | eedit soorce]

Some Ranunculaceae are uised as yerbal medicines because o their alkaloids an glycosides, such as Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), whose ruit is uised as a tonic.

Mony genera are well kent as cultivatit flouers, such as Aconitum (monkshuid), Consolida (larkspur), Delphinium, Helleborus (Christenmas rose), Trollius (globeflouer).

The seeds o Nigella sativa, are uised as a spice in Indie an Middle Eastren cuisine.

Genera[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

Flowers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fruit[eedit | eedit soorce]

Follicle[eedit | eedit soorce]

Achene[eedit | eedit soorce]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kathleen B. Pigg and Melanie L. DeVore (2005), "Paleoactaea gen. nov. (Ranunculaceae) fruits from the Paleogene of North Dakota and the London Clay", American Journal of Botany 92: 1650–1659, doi:10.3732/ajb.92.10.1650 
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Poster
  3. Plants in their proper places
  4. Flowering Plant Gateway

General references[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006 [and more or less continuously updated since]. [2]
  • (Italian) Sandro Pignatti, Flora d'Italia, Edagricole, Bologna 1982. ISBN 88-506-2449-2
  • Tamura, M.: "Ranunculaceae.", en Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J.G. & Bittrich, V. (Editores). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. II. Flowering Plants - Dicotyledons..- Springer-Verlag: Berlín, 1993.- ISBN 3-540-55509-9
  • Strasburger, Noll, Schenck, Schimper: Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen. 4. Auflage, Gustav Fischer, Jena 1900, p. 459 (flower diagrams)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]