Norman leid

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Norman possessions in the 12t century

Norman (Normandy: normaund, Guernésiais: normand, Jèrriais: Nouormand) is a Romance leid an ane o the Oïl leids. Norman can be classified as ane o the northren Oïl leids alang wi Picard an Walloon. The name Norman-French is sometimes uised tae describe no anerlie the Norman leid, but an aa the administrative leids o Anglo-Norman an Law French uised in Ingland.

Geographical distribution[eedit | eedit soorce]

Norman is spaken in mainland Normandy in Fraunce where it haes nae offeecial status, but is classed as a regional leid. It is taught in a few colleges near Cherbourg.

In the Channel Islands, the Norman leid haes developed separately, but no in isolation, tae form wha are recognized as Jèrriais (in Jersey), Guernésiais or Guernsey French (in Guernsey) an Sercquiais (or Sarkese, in Sark). Jèrriais an Guernésiais are recognized as regional leids bi the Breetish an Erse governments athin the framework o the British-Irish Council.

Sercquiais is in fact a descendant o the 16t century Jèrriais uised bi the original colonists frae Jersey who settled the then uninhabited island.

The last native speakers o Auregnais, the Norman leid o Alderney, dee'd durin the 20t century, although some rememberers still exist. The dialect o Herm an' a' lapsed, at an unkent date.

An isogloss termed the ligne Joret separates the northren an soothren dialects o the Norman leid (the line is frae Granville tae the Dutch speakin Belgian border). There are an aa dialectal differences atween wastren an eastren dialects.

Three different standardized spellings are uised: continental Norman, Jèrriais, an Dgèrnésiais. These represent the different developments an particular literary histories o the varieties o Norman. Norman mey therefore be described as a pluricentric leid.

The Anglo-Norman dialect o Norman wis a leid o administration in Ingland follaein the Norman Conquest. This left a legacy o Law French in the leid o Inglis courts (though it wis an aa influenced bi Parisian French). In Ireland, Norman remained strangest in the aurie o sooth-east Ireland whaur the Hiberno-Normans invadit in 1169. Norman is still in (limited) uise for some vera formal legal purposes in the UK, such as when the monarch gives Ryal Assent tae an Act o Parliament uisin the phrase, "La Reine/Le Roy Le Veult" ("The Queen/Keeng Wills It").

The Norman conquest o soothren Italy an aa brought the leid tae Sicily an the soothren pairt o the Appenine peninsulae, whaur it haes left a few traces in the Sicilian leid. See: Norman French influences in Sicilian.

Literature in Norman ranges frae early Anglo-Norman literature through the 19t century Norman literary renaissance tae modern writers (see Leet o Norman leid writers).

Today, the Norman leid is strangest in the less accessible auries o the umwhile Duchy o Normandy: the Channel Islands an the Cotentin Peninsulae (Cotentinais) in the wast, an the Pays de Caux (Cauchois) in the east. Ease o access frae Paris an the popularity o the coastal resorts o central Normandy, such as Deauville, in the 19t century led tae a significant loss o distinctive Norman cultur in the central law-lyin auries o Normandy.