Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 Mey 1821) wis a militar an poleetical leader o Fraunce an Emperor o the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19t century.
Napoleon wis born at Ajaccio in Corsica tae parents o noble Genoese ancestry an trained as an artillery officer in mainland Fraunce. Bonaparte rase tae prominence unner the First French Republic an led successful campaigns against the First an Seicont Coalitions arrayed against France. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état an installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade o the nineteent century, the French Empire unner Napoleon engaged in a series o conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European pouer. Efter a streak o victories, Fraunce secured a dominant position in continental Europe, an Napoleon maintained the French sphere o influence through the formation o extensive alliances an the appointment o friends an family members tae rule ither European kintras as French client states.
The French invasion o Roushie in 1812 marked a turnin point in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée wis badly damaged in the campaign an never fully recovered. In 1813, the Saxt Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded Fraunce, forced Napoleon tae abdicate an exiled him tae the island o Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba an returned tae pouer, but wis defeatit at the Battle o Waterloo in Juin 1815. Napoleon spent the last sax years o his life in confinement bi the Breetish on the island o Saunt Helena. An autopsy concluded he dee'd o stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud an other scientists hae since conjectured that he wis poisoned wi arsenic.
Napoleon's campaigns ar studied at militar academies the warld ower. While considered a tyrant bi his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment o the Napoleonic code, which laid the admeenistrative an judicial foondations for much o Wastren Europe.