Napoleon I

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Napoleon I
Full length portrait of Napoleon in his forties, in high-ranking white and dark blue military dress uniform. He stands amid rich 18th-century furniture laden with papers, and gazes at the viewer. His hair is Brutus style, cropped close but with a short fringe in front, and his right hand is tucked in his waistcoat.
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, bi Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Emperor o the French
Reign 18 May 1804 – 11 Apryle 1814
20 Mairch 1815 – 22 Juin 1815
Coronation 2 Dizember 1804
Predecessor None (himsel as First Consul o the French First Republic; previous rulin monarch wis Louis XVI)
Successor Louis XVIII (de jure in 1814)
Keeng o Italy
Reign 17 Mairch 1805 – 11 Apryle 1814
Coronation 26 Mey 1805
Predecessor Nane (himsel as Preses o the Italian Republic; previous rulin monarch wis Emperor Charles V)
Successor None (kinrick disbandit, next keeng o Italy wis Victor Emmanuel II)
Spouse Joséphine de Beauharnais
Marie Louise o Austrick
Issue
Napoleon II
Full name
Napoleon Bonaparte
Hoose Hoose o Bonaparte
Father Carlo Buonaparte
Mother Letizia Ramolino
Born 15 August 1769(1769-08-15)
Ajaccio, Corsicae, Fraunce
Died 5 Mey 1821(1821-05-05) (agit 51)
Longwood, Saunt Helena, Breetish Empire
Burial Les Invalides, Paris, Fraunce
Signature
Religion Roman Catholicism

Napoleon Bonaparte (French: Napoléon Bonaparte French pronunciation: [napoleɔ̃ bɔnɑpaʁt], Italian: Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 Mey 1821) kent tae history as Napoleon, wis a militar an poleetical leader o Fraunce an Emperor o the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19t century.

Napoleon wis born at Ajaccio in Corsicae tae parents o noble Genoese ancestry an trained as an artillery officer in mainland Fraunce. Bonaparte rase tae prominence unner the First French Republic an led successful campaigns against the First an Seicont Coalitions arrayed against France. In 1799, he staged a coup d'état an installed himself as First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor. In the first decade o the nineteent century, the French Empire unner Napoleon engaged in a series o conflicts—the Napoleonic Wars—involving every major European pouer. Efter a streak o victories, Fraunce secured a dominant position in continental Europe, an Napoleon maintained the French sphere o influence through the formation o extensive alliances an the appointment o friends an family members tae rule ither European kintras as French client states.

The French invasion o Roushie in 1812 marked a turnin point in Napoleon's fortunes. His Grande Armée wis badly damaged in the campaign an never fully recovered. In 1813, the Saxt Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig; the following year the Coalition invaded Fraunce, forced Napoleon tae abdicate an exiled him tae the island o Elba. Less than a year later, he escaped Elba an returned tae pouer, but wis defeatit at the Battle o Waterloo in Juin 1815. Napoleon spent the last sax years o his life in confinement bi the Breetish on the island o Saunt Helena. An autopsy concluded he dee'd o stomach cancer, though Sten Forshufvud an other scientists hae since conjectured that he wis poisoned wi arsenic.

Napoleon's campaigns ar studied at militar academies the warld ower. While considered a tyrant bi his opponents, he is also remembered for the establishment o the Napoleonic code, which laid the admeenistrative an judicial foondations for much o Wastren Europe.