Historic centre o Mexico Ceety

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UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid
Historic Centre o Mexico Ceety an Xochimilco
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
The Zócalo, the main plaza of Mexico City and the heart of the Centro Histórico
Kintra Mexico
Type Cultural
Criterie i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 412
UNESCO region Laitin Americae an the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11t Session)

The historic centre o Mexico Ceety is kent as the "Centro" or "Centro Histórico" an aw. This neeborheid is focused on the Zócalo or main plaza in Mexico Ceety an extends in aw directions for a nummer o blocks wi its farthest extent bein wast tae the Alameda Central[1] The Zocalo is the lairgest plaza in Laitin Americae[2] an the seicont lairgest in the warld efter Moscow's Red Square.[3] It can hauld up tae nearly 100,000 fowk.[4]

This section o the ceety haes juist ower nine square km an occupees 668 blocks. It contains 9,000 biggins, 1,550 o which hae been declared o historical importance. Maist o these historic biggins wur constructit atween the 16t an 20t centuries. It is dividit inta twa zones for preservation purposes. Zone A encompasses the pre-Hispanic ceety an its expansion frae the Viceroy period till Unthirldom. Zone B covers the auries aw ither constructions tae the end o the 19t century that are considered indispensable tae the preservation o the aurie's airchitectural an cultural heritage.[5]

This is whaur the Spaniards began tae build wha is nou modren Mexico Ceety in the 16t century on the ruins o the conquered Tenochtitlan, caipital o the Aztec Empire.[2] As the centre o the auncient Aztec Empire an the seat o pouer for the Spainyie colony o New Spain, the Centro Historico contains maist o the ceety's historic steids frae baith eras as well as a lairge nummer o museums. This haes made it a Warld Heritage Steid.[1]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Mexico City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 21
(70)
22
(72)
24
(76)
26
(78)
26
(79)
24
(76)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
23.3
(74)
Average laich °C (°F) 7
(45)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(53)
13
(55)
14
(57)
13
(56)
13
(56)
13
(55)
11
(52)
9
(48)
7
(45)
10.8
(51.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 8
(0.3)
5
(0.2)
13
(0.5)
20
(0.8)
48
(1.9)
107
(4.2)
130
(5.1)
122
(4.8)
109
(4.3)
43
(1.7)
15
(0.6)
8
(0.3)
627
(24.7)
Source: Weatherbase [6]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Foontain wi busts honorin Alonso Garcia Bravo, who laid oot post-Conquest Mexico Ceety conservin hintle o the oreeginal Aztec infrastructur. Locatit aff Merced Street atween Jesus María an Talavera, east o the Zocalo.

Wha is nou the historic dountoun o Mexico Ceety roughly correlates wi the auncient Aztec ceety o Tenochtitlan, which wis foondit aroond 1325. Durin the prehispanic era, the ceety developit in a planned fashion, wi streets an canals aligned wi the cardinal directions, leadin tae orderly square blocks.[5] The island that the ceety wis foondit on wis dividit intae fower calpullis or neebourheids that wur dividit bi the main north-sooth roads leadin tae Tepeyac an Iztapalapa respectively an the wast-east road that lead tae Tacuba an tae a dike intae the lake, respectively. The calpullis wur namit Cuepopan, Atzacualco, Moyotla an Zoquipan, which haed subdiveesions an a "tecpan" or destrict cooncil each. The intersection o these roads wis the centre o the ceety an o the Aztec warld. Here wur the Templo Mayor, the palaces o the tlatoani or emperors, palaces o nobles such as the "Hoose o the Demons" an the "Hoose o the Flouers". An aw locatit here wur the twa maist renouned Aztec schuils: the Telpuchcalli for secular studies an the Calmecac for priestly trainin. Whan the Spaniards arrivit, the ceety haed aqueducts built bi Montezuma Ilhuicamina an Ahuizotl as well as a lairge dike constructit tae the east o the ceety.[7]

Efter the Spainyie conquest, this design remained lairgely intact, maistly due tae the efforts o Alonso Garcia Bravo, who supervised hintle o the rebiggin o the ceety. This reconstruction conservit mony o the main thoroufares such as Tenayuca, renamit Vallejo; Tlacopan, renamit México Tacuba, an Tepeyac, nou cried the Calzada de los Misterios. They kept major diveesions o the ceety addin Christian prefixes tae the names such as San Juan Moyotla, Santa María Tlaquechiuacan, San Sebastián Atzacualco an San Pedro Teopan an aw. In fact, maist o the centro historicos is built wi the rubble o the destroyed Aztec ceety.[5]

A number o fowk durin this time, aw Spaniards, accumulatit vast walth maistly throu minin an commerce in the 17t an 18t centuries. This walth is reflectit in the various mansions scattered in the centro such as the Palace o Iturbide an Casa de Azulejos (Hoose o Tiles). This hoose wis built in the 16t century in Arab style but its namesake tiles wur addit in 1747 whan the Coont o the Valley o Orizaba ordered the Talavera tiles frae Puebla.[8]

In the early pairt o the 20t century, as a result o the Laitin American postur o then-Meenister o Public Education José Vasconcelos, mony o the streets tae the north an wast o the Zocalo wur renamit efter Laitin American kintras.[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Noble, John (2000). Lonely Planet Mexico City:Your map to the megalopolis. Oakland CA: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1864500875‎ Check |isbn= value (help). 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "UNESCO World Heritage Sites Mexico City Historic Center and Xochimilco". Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  3. "Mexico City Guide Historical Centre". Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  4. "Mexicans protest nationwide against crime wave". Fox News. August 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Valdez Krieg, Adriana (September 2004). "Al rescate del centro histórico". Mexico Desconocido 331. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  6. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Mexico City, Distrito Federal". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011.
  7. Horz de Via, Elena (1991). Guia Oficial Centro de la Ciudad de Mexico (in Spanish). INAH - SALVAT. pp. 8–9. ISBN 968-32-0540-2. 
  8. Lutz, Jurgen; Jochen Schurmann (2002). Patrimonio del Mundo America del Norte (in Spanish) 1. Mexico: Plaza de Janes. pp. 246–257. ISBN 84-01-61896-7. 
  9. Galindo, Carmen; Magdalena Galindo (2002). Mexico City Historic Center. Mexico City: Ediciones Nueva Guia. p. 99. ISBN 968-5437-29-7.