Guaraní leid

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Guaraní
Paraguayan Guarani
Avañe'ẽ
Pronunciation [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ]
Spoken natively in Argentinae, Brazil,
Paraguay, Bolivie
Ethnicity Guaraní fowk
Native speakers 4.85 million  (1995)
Leid faimlie
Writin seestem Guaraní alphabet (Laitin script)
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in  Paraguay
 Corrientes[1] (Argentinae)
 Bolivie
Leid codes
ISO 639-1 gn
ISO 639-2 grn
ISO 639-3 gug

Guaraní is a Native American macroleid, spoken in Paraguay an pairts o Bolivie, Argentinae, an Brazil.

Varieties[eedit | eedit soorce]

The varieties that Ethnologue 16 assigns tae the macroleid ar:

These share some degree o mutual intelligibility an ar close tae bein dialects; however, Chiripá is reportit tae be intelligible due tae bilingualism, na inherently. Also, there is a degree o intelligibility wi Kaiwá–Pai Tavytera, which is na includit in the macroleid bi Ethnologue. Ethnologue considers Tapieté tae be a separate leid, intermediate between Eastern Bolivien an Paraguayan though na listed as part o the macroleid, an haes shifted frae the name Chiripá tae Avá, though the latter is ambiguous. Paraguayan Guaraní is bi far the maist important variety an is what is aften meant bi the term 'Guaraní'.

Distribution o Guaraní[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguay[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, is, alangside Spainyie, ane o the offeecial leids o Paraguay. Paraguay's constitution is bilingual, an its state-produced textbooks ar typically hauf in Spainyie an hauf in Guaraní.

Paraguay is a diglossic kintra. The eddicatit, mair urban, an mair European-descended population tends tae speak a variety o Laitin American Spainyie wi short phrases o Guaraní thrown in, while the less educated rural population tends tae speak a Guaraní wi significant vocabulary-borrowin frae Spainyie. This latter mix is kent as Jopará [ɟopaˈɾa].

Speakers o Guaraní who are nae fluent in ony ither leid hae markedly leemitit opportunities for eddication an employment. Thare are very few speakers o Guaraní ootside Sooth Americae. Those few that exist include emigrants, scholars, missionaries, an umwhile volunteers o the Peace Corps.

A variety o Guaraní kent as Chiripá is also spoken in Paraguay. It is closely relatit tae Paraguayan Guaraní, a leid which speakers ar increasingly switchin tae. There ar 7,000 speakers o Chiripá in Paraguay.

Additionally, anither variety of Guaraní kent as Mbyá is also spoken in Paraguay bi 8,000 speakers. Lexically, it is 75% similar tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Finally, in the Paraguayan Chaco Department, there ar 304 speakers o Eastren Bolivien/Wastren Argentine Guaraní, kent locally as Ñandeva. (However, ootside Paraguay, Ñandeva refers tae Chiripá.)

Argentinae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní is an offeecial leid in the province o Corrientes, alangside Spainyie.

A different variety o Guarani, Wastren Argentine Guaraní, is spoken further wast, bi about 15,000 speakers, maistly in Jujuy, but also in Salta Province. It refers tae essentially the same variety o Guaraní as Eastren Bolivien Guaraní.

Additionally, anither variety o Guaraní kent as Mbyá is spoken in Argentinae bi 3,000 speakers.

Bolivie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Eastren Bolivien Guaraní an Westren Bolivien Guaraní ar widely spoken in the sootheastren provinces o the kintra.

Eastren Bolivien Guaraní, also kent as Chawuncu or Chiriguano, is spoken in bi 33,670 speakers (or 36,917) in the sooth-central Parapeti River area an in the ceety o Tarija. It refers tae essentially the same variety o Guaraní as Wastren Argentine Guaraní.

In August 2009 Bolivie launched a Guarani-leid university at Kuruyuki in the southeastern province of Chuquisaca which will bear the name of indigenous hero Apiaguaiki Tumpa.

Brazil[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, together wi its Tupian sisters, the língua geral paulista (presently extinct) an the língua geral amazônica (whose modern descendant is Nheengatu), wis ance as prevalent in Brazil as it is in Paraguay. The leid began a lang period o decline in Brazil when the Jesuits, who haed done much tae spread an standardize it, wur expelled frae the Portuguese Empire bi order o the Portuguese prime minister Marquis o Pombal in 1759. Guaraní survives in scattered pockets throughoot Brazil, ane o which can be foond in a rural district within the municipality o São Paulo. Olívio Jekupé, a resident o Krukutu village, located in this area, haes published a book o fowk tales written in Guaraní an Portuguese. Because o its proximity wi Paraguay, in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ponta Porã), the Guaraní leid is a seicont leid locally. In 2010, Guaraní gained the status o offeecial leid alangside Portuguese in the municipality o Tacurú, Mato Grosso do Sul. In Brazil, Paraguayan Guaraní is generally referred tae as Guarani-Kaiowá.

The variety o Guaraní kent as Chiripá is also spoken in Brazil bi 4,900 speakers. Chiripá is called Nhandeva in Brazil. Its speakers ar increasingly switchin tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Additionally, Mbyá Guaraní is spoken in Brazil bi 16,050 speakers.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

http://www.unavenirpourlesguaranis.org - French website about the Guarani

  1. Ley Nº 5598 Poder Legislativo de Corrientes, 28 September 2004 (Spainyie)