Fungus

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Fungi
A collage o five fungi (clockwise frae tap left): a mushruim wi a flat, reid tap wi white-spots, an a white stem growin on the grund; a reid cup-shaped fungus growin on wid; a stack o green an white moldy bread slices on a plate; a microscopic, spherical grey-colored semitransparent cell, wi a smaller spherical cell beside it; a microscopic view o an elangatit cellular structure shaped lik a microphone, attached tae the lairger end is a nummer o smawer roughly circular elements that collectively furm a mass aropnd it
Clockwise frae tap left:
Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete;
Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete;
bread covered in mold;
a chytrid;
an Aspergillus conidiophore.
Scienteefic classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Opisthokonta
Kingdom: Fungi
(L., 1753) R.T. Moore, 1980[1]
Subkingdoms/Phyla/Subphyla[2]
Blastocladiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Microsporidia
Neocallimastigomycota

Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota)

Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina
Saccharomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
Basidiomycota
Agaricomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina

Subphyla incertae sedis

Entomophthoromycotina
Kickxellomycotina
Mucoromycotina
Zoopagomycotina

A fungus (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is a member o a lairge group o eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (Breetish Inglis: moulds), as well as the mair familiar mushruims. These organisms are classified as a kinrick, Fungi, which is separate frae plants, animals, protists an bacteria. Ane major difference is that fungal cells hae cell walls that contain chitin, unlik the cell waws o plants an some protists, which contain cellulose, an unlik the cell waws o bacteria. These an ither differences shaw that the fungi furm a single group o relatit organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common auncestor (is a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct frae the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) an oomycetes (watter molds). The discipline o biology devotit tae the study o fungi is kent as mycology (frae the Greek μύκης, mukēs, meanin "fungus"). Mycology haes eften been regardit as a branch o botany, even tho it is a separate kinrick in biological taxonomy. Genetic studies hae shawn that fungi are mair closely relatit tae ainimals than tae plants.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Moore RT. (1980). "Taxonomic proposals for the classification of marine yeasts and other yeast-like fungi including the smuts". Botanica Marine 23: 361–373. 
  2. The classification system presented here is based on the 2007 phylogenetic study by Hibbett et al.
  3. Listeni/ˈfʌn/ or Listeni/ˈfʌŋɡ/
  4. "Fungus". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2011-02-26.