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The cougar (Puma concolor), an aa kent as the puma, muntain lion, panther, or catamount, is a lairge cat o the faimily Felidae native tae the Americas. Its range, frae the Canadian Yukon tae the soothren Andes o Sooth Americae, is the greatest o ony lairge wild terrestrial mammal in the Wastren Hemisphere. An adaptable, generalist species, the cougar is foond in maist American habitat types. It is the seicont hiviest cat in the Wastren Hemisphere, efter the jaguar. Solitar bi naitur an nocturnal, the cougar is maist closely relatit tae smawer felines an is nearer genetically tae the domestic cat than true lions.
An excellent stalk-an-ambush predator, the cougar pursues a wide variety o prey. Primary fuid soorces include ungulates such as deer, elk, moose, an bighorn sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses an sheep, particularly in the northren pairt o its range. It will an aa hunt species as smaa as insects an rodents. This cat prefers habitats wi dense unnerbrush an rocky auries for stalkin, but can an aa live in open auries. The cougar is territorial an survives at law population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain, vegetation, an abundance o prey. While lairge, it is nae always the apex predator in its range, yieldin tae the jaguar, grey wouf, American black beir, an grizzly beir. It is reclusive an uisually avoids fowk. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but hae been trendin upward in recent years as mair fowk enter thair territory.
Excessive huntin follaein European colonization o the Americas an the ongangin human development o cougar habitat haes caused populations tae drop in maist pairts o its historical range. In particular, the cougar wis extirpatit in eastren North Americae in the beginnin o the 20t century, except for an isolatit subpopulation in Florida. However, in recent decades, breedin populations hae moved east intae the far wastren pairts o the Dakotas, Nebraska, an Oklahoma. Transient males hae been verified in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, the Upper Peninsula o Michigan, an Illinois, whaur a cougar wis shot in the ceety leemits o Chicago an, in at least ane instance, observed as far east as Connecticut.
- Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544–45. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Caso, A., Lopez-Gonzalez, C., Payan, E., Eizirik, E., de Oliveira, T., Leite-Pitman, R., Kelly, M., Valderrama, C. & Lucherini, M. (2008). Puma concolor. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red Leet o Threatened Species. Retrieved March 22, 2009. Database entry includes justification for why this species is least concern
- Iriarte, J. Agustin; Franklin, William L.; Johnson, Warren E. and Redford, Kent H. (1990). "Biogeographic variation of food habits and body size of the America puma". Oecologia 85 (2): 185. doi:10.1007/BF00319400.
- Cougars. US National Park Service.
- McKee, Denise (2003). "Cougar Attacks on Humans: A Case Report". Wilderness and Environmental Medicine (Wilderness Medical Society) 14 (3): 169–73. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2003)14[169:CAOHAC]2.0.CO;2. PMID 14518628.
- Shot fells elusive cougar chased out of a culvert. StarTribune.com (December 1, 2011). Retrieved on April 29, 2013.
- "Extinct? Cougar sightings on the rise in eastern United States". Daily Mail (London). January 22, 2012.
- Mountain Lion Shot Early Friday Morning in Monona County. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, iowadnr.gov (December 23, 2011)
- Mountain lion shot by police in Monona County - KWWL.com - News & Weather for Waterloo, Dubuque, Cedar Rapids & Iowa City, Iowa |. KWWL.com. Retrieved on April 29, 2013.
- "The Cougar Network – Using Science to Understand Cougar Ecology". Cougarnet.org. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Trail cam photo of cougar in the eastern Upper Peninsula". Twitpic.com. November 5, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Indiana confirms mountain lion in Green County". Poorboysoutdoors.com. May 10, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Mountain lion killed in Conn. had walked from S. Dakota". USA Today. July 26, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
- "Connecticut Mountain Lion Likely Came From The Black Hills". NPR News. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- Cougar Tracks: Hou tae identify cougar tracks in the wild
- The soond o a cougar screamin
- Felidae Conservation Fund
- Cougar Rewildin Foundation, formerly "Eastren Cougar Foundation"
- Eastren Puma Research Network
- The Cougar Network --Uisin Science tae Unnerstaund Cougar Ecology
- Muntain Lion Foundation – Savin Americae's Lion
- SaveTheCougar.org: Sichtins o cougars in Michigan
- Fowk an Cougar/Jaguars A Guide for Coexistence
- The Cougar Fund – Protectin Americae's Greatest Cat. A Definitive Resource Aboot Cougars] Comprehensive, non-profit 501(c)(3) steid wi extensive information aboot cougars, frae hou tae live safely in cougar kintra, tae science abstracts, huntin regulations, state-bi-state cougar management/policy info, an rare photos an videos o wild cougars.