The Barada (Arabic: بردى, Greek: Chrysorrhoas) is the main river o Damascus, the caipital ceety o Sirie. It flows through the spring o `Ayn Fijah (عين فيجة), aboot 27 km north wast o Damascus in the Anti-Lebanon Muntains, but its source is Lake Barada, locatit at aboot 8 km frae Zabadani. The Barada descends through a steep, narrow gorge namit "Rabwe" afore it arrives at Damascus, whaur it divides intae seiven branches that irrigate the oasis o Ghouta (الغوطة). The 'Barada' name is thought tae derive frae 'barid', i.e. 'cauld'. The auncient Greek name means 'gowden stream'.
Throughoot the arid plateau region east o Damascus, oases, streams, an a few interior rivers that empty intae swamps an sma lakes provide watter for local irrigation. Maist important o these is the Barada, a river that rises in the Anti-Lebanon Muntains an disappears intae the desert. The Barada creates the Al Ghutah Oasis, steid o Damascus. This verdant aurie, some 370 square kilometers, haes enabled Damascus tae prosper syne auncient times. Frae the mid-1980s onwards, the size o Al Ghutah wis gradually being erodit as suburban hoosin an licht industry frae Damascus encroached on the oasis.
The river haes suffered frae severe drought in the last decades, mainly due tae the lawer rainfaw rates an the lairge increase in the population in the region. It an aw suffers frae serious pollution problems, especially in the simmer, whaur there is amaist nae flow an little watter in the basin.
Biblical mention[edit | edit source]
Barada is identifeed as Abana (or Amanah, classical Chrysorrhoas) which is the mair important o the twa rivers o Damascus an wis mentioned in the Beuk o Keengs (2 Keengs 5:12). As the Barada rises in the Anti-Lebanon Muntains, an escapes frae the muntains through a narrae gorge, its waters spread oot fan-like, in canals or rivers, the name o ane o which, the Banias river, retains a trace o Abana.
John MacGregor, who gives an interestin description o them in his beuk Rob Roy on the Jordan, affirmit that as a work of hydraulic engineering, the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as one of the most complete and extensive in the world. In the Bible, Naaman exclaims that the Abana and Pharpar are greater than all the waters of Israel.
|Wikisource haes the text o the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica airticle Abana.|
References[edit | edit source]
- From Gutenberg Encyclopedia (1911)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abana". Encyclopædia Britannica (11t ed.). Cambridge University Press.
See an aw[edit | edit source]
- Water resources management in Greater Damascus
- Before Vanishing, a documentary aboot the decline o Barada.