Emperor Penguin

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Emperor Penguin
Adults an a juvenile on Snaw Hill Island, Antarcticae
Conservation status
Scienteefic classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Sphenisciformes
Family: Spheniscidae
Genus: Aptenodytes
Species: A. forsteri
Binomial name
Aptenodytes forsteri
Gray, 1844
Emperor Penguin range
(breedin colonies in green)

The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tawest an hiviest o aw living penguin species an is endemic tae Antarcticae. The male an female are similar in plumage an size, reachin 122 cm (48 in) in heicht an weichin onywhere frae 22 to 45 kg (49 to 99 lb). The dorsal side an heid are black an sharply delineatit frae the white belly, pale-yellae breast an bricht-yellae ear patches. Like aw penguins it is flichtless, wi a streamlined body, an wings stiffened an flattened intae flippers for a marine habitat.

Its diet consists primarily o fish, but can also include crustaceans, such as krill, an cephalopods, such as squid. In huntin, the species can remain submerged up tae 18 minutes, divin tae a depth o 535 m (1,755 ft). It haes several adaptations tae facilitate this, includin an unusually structured hemoglobin tae allow it tae function at laich oxygen levels, solid bones tae reduce barotrauma, an the ability tae reduce its metabolism an shut doun non-essential organ functions.

The Emperor Penguin is perhaps baist kent for the sequence o joorneys adults mak each year in order tae mate an tae feed their affspring. The anly penguin species that breeds durin the Antarctic winter, it treks 50–120 km (31–75 mi) ower the ice tae breedin colonies which mey include thoosands o individuals. The female lays a single egg, which is incubatit bi the male while the female returns tae the sea tae feed; parents subsequently take turns foragin at sea an carin for their chick in the colony. The lifespan is typically 20 years in the wild, although observations suggest that some individuals mey live tae 50 years o age.

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