Zirconium

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Zirconium,  40Zr
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Appearancesillery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)91.224(2)[1]
Zirconium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ti

Zr

Hf
yttriumzirconiumniobium
Atomic nummer (Z)40
Groupgroup 4
Periodperiod 5
Element category  transition metal
Blockd-block
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 5s2 4d2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
Bylin pynt4682 K ​(4409 °C, ​7968 °F)
Density (near r.t.)6.52 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.8 g/cm3
Heat o fusion14 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation573 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity25.36 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
Atomic properties
Oxidation states4, 3, 2, 1[2]
(amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.33
Atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius175±7 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Zirconium
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed creestal structur for zirconium
Speed o soond thin rod3800 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion5.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity22.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity421 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus88 GPa
Shear modulus33 GPa
Bouk modulus91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio0.34
Mohs haurdness5.0
Vickers haurdness903 MPa
Brinell haurdness650 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-67-7
History
DiskiveryMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Main isotopes o zirconium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
88Zr syn 83.4 d ε 88Y
γ - 89Zr syn 78.4 h ε 89Y
β+ 89Y
γ -
90Zr 51.45% stable
91Zr 11.22% stable
92Zr 17.15% stable
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% >1.1×1017 y (ββ) 94Mo
96Zr 2.8% 2.0×1019 y[4] ββ 96Mo
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Zirconium is a chemical element wi the seembol Zr, atomic nummer 40 an atomic mass o 91.224. The name o zirconium is taken frae the mineral zircon, the maist important soorce o zirconium, an frae the Persian wird "zargun - زرگون", meanin "gold colored".[5] It is a lustrous, grey-white, strang transeetion metal that resembles titanium. Zirconium is mainly uised as a refractory an opacifier, altho it is uised in smaa amoonts as an alloyin agent for its strang resistance tae corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety o inorganic an organometallic compoonds sic as zirconium dioxide an zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naiturally, three o which are stable. Zirconium compoonds hae na kent biological role.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. "Zirconium: zirconium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. Pritychenko, Boris; V. Tretyak. "Adopted Double Beta Decay Data". National Nuclear Data Center. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  5. Harper, Douglas. "zircon". Online Etymology Dictionary.