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Zirconium,  40Zr
Zirconium crystal bar and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol zirconium, Zr
Pronunciation /zərˈkniəm/ zər-KOH-ni-əm
Appearance sillery white
Zirconium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer 40
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 91.224
Element category   transeetion metal
Group, block group 4, d-block
Period period 5
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s2 4d2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 2128 K ​(1855 °C, ​3371 °F)
Boilin pynt 4682 K ​(4409 °C, ​7968 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.52 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.8 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 14 kJ/mol
Heat o 573 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.36 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2639 2891 3197 3575 4053 4678
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[1]
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.33
Atomic radius empirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius 175±7 pm
Crystal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure for zirconium
Speed o soond thin rod 3800 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 5.7 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 22.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 421 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 88 GPa
Shear modulus 33 GPa
Bulk modulus 91.1 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs haurdness 5.0
Vickers haurdness 903 MPa
Brinell haurdness 650 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-67-7
Discovery Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1789)
First isolation Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1824)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o zirconium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
88Zr syn 83.4 d ε - 88Y
γ 0.392D -
89Zr syn 78.4 h ε - 89Y
β+ 0.902 89Y
γ 0.909D -
90Zr 51.45% 90Zr is stable wi 50 neutrons
91Zr 11.22% 91Zr is stable wi 51 neutrons
92Zr 17.15% 92Zr is stable wi 52 neutrons
93Zr trace 1.53×106 y β 0.060 93Nb
94Zr 17.38% >1.1×1017 y (ββ) 1.144 94Mo
96Zr 2.8% 2.0×1019 y[3] ββ 3.348 96Mo
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Zirconium is a chemical element wi the seembol Zr, atomic nummer 40 an atomic mass o 91.224. The name o zirconium is taken frae the mineral zircon, the maist important soorce o zirconium, an frae the Persian wird "zargun - زرگون", meanin "gold colored".[4] It is a lustrous, grey-white, strang transeetion metal that resembles titanium. Zirconium is mainly uised as a refractory an opacifier, altho it is uised in smaa amoonts as an alloyin agent for its strang resistance tae corrosion. Zirconium forms a variety o inorganic an organometallic compoonds such as zirconium dioxide an zirconocene dichloride, respectively. Five isotopes occur naiturally, three o which are stable. Zirconium compoonds hae na kent biological role.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Zirconium: zirconium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  3. Pritychenko, Boris; V. Tretyak. "Adopted Double Beta Decay Data". National Nuclear Data Center. Retrieved 2008-02-11. 
  4. Harper, Douglas. "zircon". Online Etymology Dictionary.