Yttrium

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Yttrium, 39Y
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Yttrium
Pronunciation/ˈɪtriəm/ (IT-ree-əm)
Appearancesillery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Y)88.90584(1)[1]
Mass numberY:
Yttrium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Sc

Y

Lu
strontiumyttriumzirconium
Atomic nummer (Z)39
Groupgroup 3
Periodperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  Transeetion metal
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1799 K ​(1526 °C, ​2779 °F)
Bylin pynt3609 K ​(3336 °C, ​6037 °F)
Density (near r.t.)4.472 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)4.24 g/cm3
Heat o fusion11.42 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation365 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.53 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1883 2075 (2320) (2627) (3036) (3607)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 waikly basic
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.22
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius190±7 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o yttrium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceY: Primordial
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for yttrium
Speed o soond thin rod3300 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(r.t.) (α, poly)
10.6 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity17.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity(r.t.) (α, poly) 596 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus63.5 GPa
Shear modulus25.6 GPa
Bulk modulus41.2 GPa
Poisson ratio0.243
Brinell haurdness589 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-65-5
History
DiskiveryJohan Gadolin (1794)
First isolationCarl Gustav Mosander (1840)
Main isotopes o yttrium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
87Y syn 3.35 d ε 87Sr
γ -
88Y syn 106.6 d ε 88Sr
γ -
89Y 100% stable
90Y syn 2.67 d β 90Zr
γ -
91Y syn 58.5 d β 91Zr
γ -
| references

Yttrium is a chemical element wi seembol Y an atomic nummer 39. It is a sillery-metallic transeetion metal chemically seemilar tae the lanthanides an it haes eften been clessifee'd as a "rare yird element".[4] Yttrium is almaist always foond combined wi the lanthanides in rare yird minerals an is never foond in naiture as a free element. Its anly stable isotope, 89Y, is an aa its anly naiturally occurrin isotope.

In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius foond a new mineral near Ytterby in Swaden an named it ytterbite, efter the veelage. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789,[5] an Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium wis first isolated in 1828 bi Friedrich Wöhler.[6]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. Cite uses deprecated parameter |displayauthors= (help)
  2. Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce, Pm, Eu, Tm, Yb have been observed in the oxidation state 0 in bis(1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene) complexes, see Cloke, F. Geoffrey N. (1993). "Zero Oxidation State Compounds of Scandium, Yttrium, and the Lanthanides". Chem. Soc. Rev. 22: 17–24. doi:10.1039/CS9932200017.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. IUPAC contributors (2005). Edited by N G Connelly and T Damhus (with R M Hartshorn and A T Hutton) (ed.). Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: IUPAC Recommendations 2005 (PDF). RSC Publishing. p. 51. ISBN 0-85404-438-8. Retrieved 17 December 2007.CS1 maint: extra text: eeditors leet (link)
  5. Van der Krogt 2005
  6. CRC contributors (2007–2008). "Yttrium". In Lide, David R. (ed.). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 4. New York: CRC Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-8493-0488-0.