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Ytterbium,  70Yb
General properties
Name, seembol ytterbium, Yb
Appearance sillery white
Pronunciation /ˈtɜːrbiəm/ i-TUR-bee-əm
Ytterbium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 70
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 173.054(5)
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1097 K ​(824 °C, ​1515 °F)
Bylin pynt 1469 K ​(1196 °C, ​2185 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.21 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 7.66 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 159 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 736 813 910 1047 (1266) (1465)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

3, 2, 1

(basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: ? 1.1
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 187±8 pm
Crystal structur face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structur for ytterbium
Speed o soond thin rod 1590 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (β, poly) 26.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 38.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (β, poly) 0.250 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus (β form) 23.9 GPa
Shear modulus (β form) 9.9 GPa
Bulk modulus (β form) 30.5 GPa
Poisson ratio (β form) 0.207
Vickers haurdness 206 MPa
Brinell haurdness 343 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-64-4
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1878)
First isolation Georges Urbain (1907)
Maist stable isotopes o ytterbium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
166Yb syn 56.7 h ε 0.304 166Tm
168Yb 0.13% >1.3×1014 y (α) 1.9508 164Er
(β+β+) 1.4221 168Er
169Yb syn 32.026 d ε 0.909 169Tm
170Yb 3.04% - (α) 1.7376 166Er
171Yb 14.28% - (α) 1.5589 167Er
172Yb 21.83% - (α) 1.3103 168Er
173Yb 16.13% - (α) 0.9459 169Er
174Yb 31.83% - (α) 0.7401 170Er
175Yb syn 4.185 d β 0.470 175Lu
176Yb 12.76% >1.6×1017 y (α) 0.570 172Er
(ββ) 1.083 176Hf
177Yb syn 1.911 h β 1.399 177Lu
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Ytterbium is a chemical element wi seembol Yb an atomic nummer 70. It is the fowerteent an penultimate element in the lanthanide series, or last element in the f-block, which is the basis o the relative stability o the +2 oxidation state. However, lik the ither lanthanides, the maist common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides an ither compounds. In aqueous solution, lik compoonds o ither late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compoonds furm complexes wi nine watter molecules. Acause o its closed-shell electron configuration, its density an meltin an boilin points differ frae those o the ither lanthanides.

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