|Wu Zetian |
Eemage taken frae An 18th century album of portraits of 86 emperors of China, with Chinese historical notes. Oreeginally published/produced in Cheenae, 18t century. (British Library, Shelfmark Or. 2231)
|Empress Regnant o the Zhou Dynasty|
|Ring||16 October 690[a] – 22 Februar 705 [b]|
|Coronation||16 October 690|
(Emperor Ruizong as Emperor o the Tang dynasty)
(Emperor Zhongzong as Emperor o the Tang dynasty)
|Grand Empress Dowager o the Tang dynasty|
|Reing||27 December 683 – 16 October 690|
|Coronation||27 December 683|
|Predecessor||Empress Hu as Empress Dowager o Northren Wei|
|Empress Consort o the Tang dynasty|
|Ring||2 December 655 – 27 December 683|
|Coronation||2 December 655|
|Born||c.624 (Na record, Accordin tae the daith o 83 year auld speculation)|
Na record, Tang Dynasty
|Dee'd||16 December 705 (aged 80–81)|
Luoyang, Tang dynasty
|Faither||Wu Shihuo, Duke Ding o Ying|
Wu Zetian (624 – 16 December 705), alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, in the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, in Scots as Empress Consort Wu or bi the deprecatit term "Empress Wu", wis a Cheenese sovereign that ruled unoffeecially as empress consort an empress dowager an offeecially as empress regnant (皇帝) in the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), that interruptit the Tang dynasty. Wu wis the sole offeecially recognised empress regnant o Cheenae in maur than twa millennia.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Wu wis pairtially in control o pouer syne approximately 660 an her pouer wis even mair paramunt efter Januar 665. Her Zhou dynasty wis proclaimed on 16 October 690, an she proclaimed hersel Empress Regnant on 19 October, demotin her son Emperor Ruizong tae the rank o croun prince wi the unuisual teetle o Huangsi (皇嗣).
- She lost pouer in the pailace coup o 20 Februar, 705, and on 22 Februar, she wis forced tae return imperial authority tae her son Li Xian, that wis restored as Emperor Zhongzong on 23 Februar. The Zhou dynasty wis terminatit wi the restoration o the Tang dynasty on 3 Mairch.
- Her cuisin's son Zong Qinke creautit a nummer o new chairacters in December 689, an she chuise 曌 as her gien name, that becam her taboo name whan she ascendit the throne the next year. Some soorces assert that this chairacter wis actually written 瞾. Some soorces (e.g., Bo Yang Edeetion o the Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 47–49) an aw assert that her oreeginal gien name wis Zhao an that in 689 she anerly chynged the written chairacter, but this is confirmed bi naither the Old Book of Tang nor the New Book of Tang, naither o that statit her oreeginal gien name. It shoud be notit that her grandson Li Chongzhao, sometime efter she became emperor, chynged his name tae Li Chongrun tae observe namin taboo for her, an the chairacter o "Zhao" in Li Chongzhao's name wis 照. See Old Book of Tang, vol. 86 an New Book of Tang, vol. 81.
- She wis gien the name Meiniang bi Emperor Taizong in the late 630s efter she haed entered the imperial palace, but wis nae leveled up in consort rank.
- Zetian wis the beginnin o the honoureefic name (徽號) – Divine Empress Regnant Zetian (Cheenese: 則天大聖皇帝) – gien tae her in Februar 705 bi her son, Emperor Zhongzong o Tang. The honoureefic name wis uised as her posthumous name whan she dee'd ten months later, awtho she wis an aw frequently referred tae as "Heivenly Empress" ootthrou the rest o Tang dynasty.
- The feenal version o her posthumous name as gien in Julie 749.
- Zhou dynasty wis abolished afore her daith, an she wis revertit tae the rank o empress consort on her daith, so she did nae hae a temple name, as empresses consort, unlik rulin emperors, wae nae gien temple names.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- [deid airtin]
- "Archived copy". Archived frae the oreeginal on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 2008-03-06. Unknown parameter
|deadurl=ignored (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as teetle (link)
- Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. New York, NY: W.W. Norton Company. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-393-91847-2.
- Paludan, 100
- See, for example, Beckwith, 130, n. 51.