Warlord Era

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Warlord Era
Map of major Chinese warlord coalitions 1925.png
Warlords i Cheenae at 1925. the blue area is controlled by th' Kuomintang, while the red areas ur ay the northern cliques
Traditional Chinese軍閥時代
Simplified Chinese军阀时代
Flag o the Republic o Cheenae atween 1912 an 1928

The Warlord Era wis a period o time i the history o Cheenae, follaein the faw o the Qing Dynasty an precedin the establishment o the Nanjing Government bi Chiang Kai-Shek. It is characterised bi mony wars an coalitions atween sindry warlairds, maistlins i the North o Cheenae. Mony see this period as endin i 1928, efter the Northern Expedition, i that the Kuomintang unifee'd maist o the warlairds unner thaim nominallie. The warlaird era wis an important pairt o the Chinese Civil War, aften kent as the first stage o the weir.

Oreigins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mony warlairds drew their strenth frae new airmies that haed been creatit durin or efter the Taiping Rebellion, the maist weel kent o that wis the Beiyang Army. This airmy wis the main predecessor o the Beiyang warlairds, that ringit ower china nominallie frae Beijing until the capital changed tae Nanjing efter the Northern Expedition.

Thewarts the stairt o the 20t yeirhunner, mony quaistens wis bein askit aboot the future o Cheenae. The damage duin bi Empress Dowager Cixi wis irreversible, an mony tried tae quick mak reforms i the empire. On the ither side, mony turnt tae revolution as a possibilitie an aw, includin republican heidyin Sun Yat-sen, nou regairdit as the "Faither o Cheenae". Sun creatit the republican group o the Tongmenghui, a merger o ither republican groups, that eventual became the Kuomintang.

The Qing Dynasty, that haed ringit ower Cheenae sin 1644, wis owerthrawn i the Xinhai Revolution, stairtin wi the Wuchang Uprisin. Yuan Shikai, that wis wirkin tae pit doon the revolutionaries, decidit tae wirk wi thaim an negotiate fur thaim wi the Qing. This caust the Xuantong Emperor (fir ordinar kent as Puyi) tae abdicate an fur a new republic tae be established.[1] The Provisional President o the Republic o Cheenae haed bin Sun Yat-sen, but Yuan Shikai teuk his place an shiftit the caipital tae Beijing agin Sun's wishes.[2]

President Yuan Shikai[eedit | eedit soorce]

As President, Yuan Shikai resistit mony attempts fur the Kuomintang tae enter the chain o command o the Beiyang airmy. Pouer wis kept i Beijing, an i 1913, Yuan sent fower o his lieutenants tae become the militar govreners o different provinces. Houiver, splits awreidy stairtit tae shaw i this period. Beijing's actual pouer nou extendit intae Hunan an north intae Manchurie. 1913 saw the Second Revolution, a revolt agin Yuan. Houiver, it wis quick defeatit. Yuan wad anerly see his pouer gane wi the National Protection War frae 1915-1916.

I 1915, Yuan Shikai declarit hissel Emperor o Cheenae, establishin a new Empire o Cheenae. This wis supportit bi a few fowk, maist notabe Xinjiang govrenor Yang Zengxin. Houaniver, due tae the bourach this caused, soothern provinces, led bi Cai E i Yunnan, stairtit the National Protection Movement tae depose the Empire o Cheenae. Suin efter the war, Yuan demittit as President o the Republic an deed. This haed brocht hale disunity tae the Beiyang airmy, an divisions atween sindry Beiyang figures anerly grew waur. Fowk haed maistlins coalescit intae the Anhui clique, the Fengtian clique, an the Zhili clique, the three major factions o Cheenae at the time.[3]

Anhui Dominance[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wi Li Yuanhong replacin Yuan Shikai as President efter his daith, the political pouer fawed intae the haunds o Premier Duan Qirui. The govrenment wirkit close wi the Zhili clique unner Vice President Feng Guozhang tae maintain stability.

Duan teuk the Nishihara loans, that he uised tae biggin an airmy.[4] He debatit jynin the First Warld War wi li, leadin tae baith Li an Duan askin fur General Zhang Xun tae step i an restore stability i Beijing. Houaniver, whan Zhang entert the city on 1 Julie, he dissolvit the pairlament an proclaimt the restorin o the Qing dynasty i the Manchu restoration.[5] Duan quickly returnt frae Tianjin wi reinforcements, crushin the Manchu restoration. Diveesions atween the Zhili an Anhui cliques got waur til the eventual Zhili-Anhui War, i that a coalition atween the Zhili clique an the Manchurian Fengtian clique led tae the exile o the Anhui clique tae Shanghai an Zhejiang.

Zhili Dominance[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the Zhili-Anhui war, Beijing wis jyntly occupied bi the Zhili an Fengtian cliques. Feng Guozhang deed i 1919, bein replacit as leader o the clique bi Cao Kun. War brakit oot atween Zhili an Fengtian i 1922 i the First Zhili-Fengtian War, endin i Fengtian bein driven back tae Manchurie.[6] The Zhili returnit Li Yuanhong tae the position o President an restorit the National Assembly. They drove Sun Yat-sen oot o Guangzhou. Cao teuk up the position o President i 1923, despite opposition frae rival warlairds an the folk o Cheenae.[7]

I 1924, a brakit treaty atween Jiangsu govrener Qi Xieyuan an Zhejiang govrener Lu Yongxiang led tae the Jiangsu-Zhejiang War, pittin the Zhili amang the remnants o the Anhui clique. A coalition involvin the Fengtian clique, the Anhui clique an the Kuomintang stairtit fechtin the Zhili, leadin tae the Second Zhili-Fengtian War. Sun Chuanfang, govrener o Fujian, helpt Qi i takin Nanjing, whiles tae the north, battles wis bein focht tae pass throu the Great Waw, wi Fengtian forces finally findin a pass thewarts the end o the war.[6] Zhili general Feng Yuxiang betrayit the Zhili clique, leadin tae the eventual loss o the Zhili i the weir i 1925.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Busky, Donald F. (2002) Communism in History and Theory, Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-97733-1.
  2. Joseph W.; Wei, C.X. George (2013). China: How the Empire Fell. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. pp 239–241. ISBN 978-0-415-83101-7
  3. Spence 282-283
  4. Gray 178-179
  5. Putnam Weale (1917). The fight for the republic in China. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 360-366
  6. a b Waldron, Arthur. From War to Nationalism: China's Turning Point, 1924-1925. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  7. Nathan, Andrew (1998). Peking Politics 1918-1923: Factionalism and the Failure of Constitutionalism. Center for Chinese Studies. ISBN 978-0-89264-131-4
  8. Fairbank, Reischauer, Craig, John, Edwin, Albert (1978). East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. Boston: Hougton Mifflin Company. pp. 761–762. ISBN 978-0-395-25812-5.