Paceefic War

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"War in the Paceefic" redirects here. For the war atween Chile, Bolivie, an Peru in 1879–84, see War o the Paceefic.
Pacific War
Pairt o Warld War II
Cairt indicatin US laundins during the Paceefic War
Cairt shawin the main auries o the conflict an Allied laundins in the Paceefic, 1942–45.
Date
7 December 1941 – 2 September 1945
(3 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 5 days)
Location
Result
Territorial
changes

Allied occupation o Japan

Belligerents

Allies[1]
 United States

 China[2]
Breetish Empire Breetish Commonweel

 Netherlands

 Soviet Union (1945)

an ithers [nb 1]

Axis
 Empire o Japan
 Thailand

an ithers [nb 2]
Commanders an leaders
Strenth
Republic o Cheenae (1912–1949) 14,000,000[3]
Unitit States 3,621,383+ (1945)[nb 3]
Unitit Kinrick 400,000[8]
Breetish Raj 2,000,000[8]
Netherlands 140,000[9][nb 4]
Soviet Union 1,669,500 (1945)[10]
Empire o Japan 7,800,000-7,900,000 (1945)[11][12][13]
Thailand 126,500[14]
, Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg, Indie and other puppets: ~1,000,000+ (1945)[15]
Casualties an losses
  • Militar
    5 battleships
    11 aircraft carriers
    25 cruisers
    84 destroyers an destroyer escorts
    63 submarines[16]
    21,555+ aircraft[17]
    4,000,000+ dead (1937–45)[nb 5]
  • Ceevilian daiths
    26,000,000+ (1937–45)[nb 6]
  • Militar
    11 battleships
    25 aircraft carriers
    39 cruisers
    135 destroyers
    131 submarines[35]
    43,125+ aircraft[36]
    2,500,000+ dead (1937–45)[nb 7]
  • Ceevilian daiths
    1,000,000+[nb 8]
  • a Includin its islands an neighbourin kintras.
  • b Pairtially an briefly.

The Paceefic War, whiles cried the Asie-Paceefic War,[44] wis the theatre o Warld War II that wis focht in the Paceefic an East Asie.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Complete leet o naitions that focht on the Allied side in the Paceefic War: The Republic o Cheenae, The Unitit States, The Unitit Kinrick (includin the Fiji Islands, the Straits Settlements an ither colonial forces), Tonga (a Breetish pertectorate), Australie (includin the Territory o New Guinea), the Commonweel o the Philippines (a Unitit States pertectorate), Breetish Indie, the Netherlands (includin Dutch East Indies colonial forces), the Soviet Union, New Zealand, Canadae, Mexico, an Mongolie. Free French Naval Forces contreibutit several warships, such as the Triomphant. Efter the Liberation o Fraunce, the French battleship Richelieu wis sent tae the Paceefic. Frae 1943, the commando group Corps Léger d'Intervention teuk pairt in resistance operations in Indocheenae. French Indocheenese forces faced Japanese forces in a coup in 1945. The commando corps continued tae operate efter the coup till liberation.
    Guerrilla organisations that focht for the Allies include Cheenese Reid Airmy, Hukbalahap, Malayan Fowk's Anti-Japanese Airmy, Manchurian Anti-Japanese Volunteer Airmies, the Korean Liberation Airmy, an the Viet Minh
  2. Complete leet o naitions an groups that focht on the Axis side in the Paceefic War: The Empire o Japan (includin Thailand, the puppet govrenment o Manchukuo, Mengjiang, Wang Jingwei regime, an ither Cheenese collaborationist govrenments an organisations, the State o Burma, the Proveesional Govrenment o Free Indie, the puppet Seicont Philippine Republic, an ither states in the Greater East Asie Co-Prosperity Sphere). The Vichy French allaed the Japanese tae uise bases in French Indocheenae beginnin in 1941 follaein invasion. In addeetion, Nazi Germany an Italy baith contreibutit smaw naval forces.
  3. Strenth o the US Militar in Asia an the Paceefic as o war's end: Army: 1,770,036,[4] Navy (excludin Coast Guard an Marines): 1,366,716,[5] an Marine Corps: 484,631.[6] These figurs dinna include the Coast Guard or naval personnel in the Cheenae-Burma-Indie theatre.[7]
  4. These nummers dinna include the Ryal Netherlands Navy.
  5. 3.8 million Cheenese militar daiths (1937–45; 3.2 million Naitionalist/-allied an 580,000 Communist),[18] 370,0881 Unitit States casualties (at least 111,914 killed [includin 13,395 wha died as POWs an 5,707 wha died o woonds], 248,316 woondit an missin, 16,358 capturt an returned),[19][20] 52,000 Breetish casualties includin 12,000 daiths in captivity,[citation needit] 87,028 Breetish Indian soldiers killed[21][22][page needit] 17,501 Australies killed[23] 27,000 killed (includin POWs wha died in captivity), 70,000+ capturt (nae includin thir wha died), unkent woondit frae the Philippine Commonweel (nae includin guerrilla forces),[24] around 9,400 Dutch killed including 8,500 who died in captivity (likely not including colonial forces),[citation needit] 578 New Zealander casualties,[25] 63,225 Soviet casualties (12,031 killed an missin, 42,428 woondit an sick; disna coont the 1938–1939 Soviet-Japanese Border Wars), 5000 French militar casualties in Indocheenae, 300 Mongolie casualties[26] an 5 Mexican daiths[27] Malaria wis the maist important heal hazard encoontered bi U.S. troops in the Sooth Pacific during Warld War II, whaur aboot 500,000 men war infectit.[28]
  6. Ower 17 million Cheenese ceevilian daiths (1937–45);[18] aroond 4 million ceevilian daiths frae the Dutch East Indies;[22][page needit], 1-2 million Indocheenese ceevilians;[29] aroond 3 million[30] Indian civilian daiths in the Bengal famine o 1943; 0.5 to 1 million[31] Filipino civilian deaths; 250,000[32] tae 1,000,000[33] Burmese ceevilian daiths; 50,000[34] East Timorese ceevilian daiths; an hunders o thoosands o Malayan, Paceefic an ither ceevilian daiths.[22][page needit]
  7. 2,133,915 Japanese militar daiths 1937–45,[37] 1.18 million Cheenese collaborator casualties 1937–45 (432,000 dead),[38] 22,000 Burmese casualties,[citation needit] 5,600 Thai truips killed,[39] an 2,615 Indian Naitional Airmy (Azad Hind) killed/missin.[40]
  8. 460,000 Japanese ceevilian daiths (338,000 in the bombins o Japan,[41] 100,000 in the Battle o Okinawa, 22,000 in the Battle o Saipan), 543,000 Korean ceevilian daiths (maistly due tae Japanese forced labour projects),[42] 2,000-8,000 Thai ceevilian daiths[43]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. A Decade of American Foreign Policy 1941–1949 Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Moscow. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
  2. At war syne 1937.
  3. Hastings pg. 205
  4. Coakley and Leighton (1989). Global Logistics and Strategy 1943–1945 pg. 836
  5. US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Table 9.
  6. King, Ernest J. (1945). Third Report to the Secretary of the Navy pg. 221
  7. US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Footnote 2.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hastings pg. 10
  9. "Chapter 10: Loss of the Netherlands East Indies". The Army Air Forces in World War II: Vol. 1 – Plans & Early Operations. HyperWar. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  10. Beevor: The Second World War pg. 776 Total involved in Manchuria
  11. Cook (1992). Japan at War: an Oral History. New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-039-3.  pp. 403. Japanese strength is given at 4,335,500 in the Home Islands and 3,527,000 abroad.
  12. Harrison pp. 29 Retrieved 10 March 2016
  13. Australia-Japan Research Project, "Dispositions and Deaths" Retrieved 10 March 2016
  14. Meyer, Milton Walter (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 309. ISBN 9780847680634. 
  15. Jowett, pp. 72
  16. www.navsource.org Retrieved 25 July 2015; www.uboat.net Retrieved 25 July 2015; Major British Warship Losses in World War II. Retrieved 25 July 2015; Chinese Navy Retrieved 26 July 2015.
  17. Hara, Tameichi, with Fred Saito and Roger Pineau. Japanese Destroyer Captain (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011), p. 299. Figure is for U.S. losses only. China, the British Commonwealth, the USSR and other nations collectively add several thoosand mair tae this tot.
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Chinese People Contribute to WWII". Retrieved 23 April 2009. 
  19. "United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  20. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p 585
  21. Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 44. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Dower, John William (1987), War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon
  23. Dear, I.C.B and Foot, M.R.D. (editors) (2005). "Australia". The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-19-280670-3. 
  24. Gruhl, Werner (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 9780765803528. 
  25. "Honouring NZ's Pacific War dead". Beehive. 15 August 2005. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  26. "Russia and USSR in Wars of the 20th Century". И.И.Ивлев. Archived frae the oreeginal on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  27. "Leyte Gulf: The Mexican Air Force". Avalanche Press. Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  28. "Science and the Pacific War: Science and Survival in the Pacific, 1939–1945". Roy M. MacLeod (2000). p. 51. ISBN 0-7923-5851-1
  29. "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". Mailman.anu.edu.au. Retrieved 31 October 2010. 
  30. Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. London: Oxford University Press. p. 203. ISBN 9780195649543. 
  31. Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 143-144
  32. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
  33. McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, pg. 1.
  34. Ruas, Óscar Vasconcelos, "Relatório 1946-47", AHU
  35. Hara, p. 297.
  36. Hara, p. 299. Figure is for Japanese aircraft only.
  37. Bren, John (3 June 2005) "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory" Japan Focus. Retrieved on 5 June 2009.
  38. R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
  39. Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n:
  40. Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p 556
  41. STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE: Chapter 13: Death By American Bombing, RJ Rummel, University of Hawaii.
  42. Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 19
  43. E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
  44. Williamson Murray, Allan R. Millett A War to be Won: Fichting the Second World War, Harvard University Press, 2001, p. 143