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Valle de Chalco

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Valle de Chalco, offeecially namit Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, is a municipality locatit in the State o Mexico, Mexico, on the eastren ootskirts o the metropolitan aurie o Mexico Ceety. Umwhile pairt o the municipality o Chalco, it wis split aff as a separate entity in 1994, durin the presidency o Salinas de Gortari, unner his Programa Nacional de Solidaridad (Naitional Solidarity Program). The municipality lees on the auld bed o Loch Chalco, which wis substantially drained in the nineteent hunderyear. Technically, the municipal seat is Xico, efter a heich point o laund that ance shapit a island, an nou remains as a smaw hill athin a itherwise monotonous, urban expanse. "Chalco" refers tae the Chalca tribe, whose territory covered the aurie aroond the loch, prior tae the Spainyie Conquest o Mexico.

As o 2006, Chalco includit pairt o the warld's lairgest mega-slum, alang wi Neza an Izta.[1]

Pre-Columbie history

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Aircheologists date human dounset aroond Loch Chalco frae aboot 2400 B.C, but major dounset occurred at approximately 1240 B.C., when the first tribe tae caw itsel Chalca migrated tae the region. This tribe wis follaeed bi ithers, ethnically an linguistically diverse, who addit the name Chalca tae their awn. Bi 1410 the Chalca territory haed developit intae a loose confederation, dividit intae fower, semi-sovereign domains. In the early 14t hunderyear the Mexica tribe o the Aztecs settled in nearbi territory an began tae build their ceety o Tenochitlan, nou Mexico Ceety. Ower time, the Chalcas an Mexicas engaged in a nummer o ritual wars, kent as Xōchiyaoyōtl or Flouer Wars. Durin the Spainyie Conquest o the Aztecs, the Chalca allied thairsels wi Hernán Cortés an his troops.

Modren history

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Unner the presidency o Porfirio Díaz, hintle o the drained loch bed shapit pairt o a latifundia, the Hacienda de Xico. Follaein the Mexican Revolution, laund awnership wis mendit intae the ejido seestem o communal awnership, an wis utilisit primarily for dairy fermin bi the communal awners, or ejidatarios. This began tae chynge near the end o the 1970s, as hunders o hamesteiders, generally frae Mexico Ceety an adjacent urbanisit auries, stryndit upon the region. Maist purchased their hamesteid plots illegally frae ejidatarios. The new dounset grew despite the lack o basic infrastructur, such as potable watter, sewers, electricity, public transport, medical services an schuils.

Durin the decades o the 1980s an 1990s, Valle de Chalco expandit dramatically in population; bi 1995 the ceety haed 287,073 residents. Growth haes syne slowed, as undevelopit laund becomes less available; in 2005, thare wur 332,279 residents.[2] Bi the 2010 census it haed grown tae 357,645.

Touns an veelages

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Localities (ceeties, touns, an veelages) are:[3]

Name 2010 Census Population
Xico 356,352
Colonia Ampliación (San Miguel Tláhuac) 742
Santa Cruz 228
El Triángulo 203
Comalchica 109
Ejido Tulyehualco (Tabla Número Nueve) 8
El Invernadero 3
Las Bombas 0
Total Municipality 357,645


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  1. Mike Davis, Planet of Slums, La Découverte, Paris, 2006 (ISBN 978-2-7071-4915-2), p. 31.
  2. "2005 Mexican Housing and Population Count". Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografica (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 Mey 2009.
  3. 2010 census tables: INEGI Archived 2018-12-25 at the Wayback Machine

Coordinates: 19°17′30″N 98°56′20″W / 19.29167°N 98.93889°W / 19.29167; -98.93889