Trebonianus Gallus

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Trebonianus Gallus
36t Emperor o the Roman Empire
Bust o Trebonianus Gallus
Ring251 (wi Hostilian);
251–53 (wi Volusianus)
PredecessorDecius an Herennius Etruscus
Dee'dAugust 253 (agit 47)
IssueGaius Vibius Volusianus, dochter Vibia Galla
Full name
Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus
(frae birth tae accession);
Caesar Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus (as emperor)
FaitherSenatorial faimily

Trebonianus Gallus (Laitin: Gaius Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus;[1][2] 206 – August 253), kent as Gallus an aw, wis Roman Emperor frae 251 tae 253, in a jynt rule wi his son Volusianus.

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallus wis born in Italy, in a faimily wi respectit ancestry o Etruscan senatorial backgrund. He haed twa childer in his mairriage wi Afinia Gemina Baebiana: Gaius Vibius Volusianus, later Emperor, an a dochter, Vibia Galla. His early career wis a teepical cursus honorum, wi several appointments, baith poleetical an militar. He wis suffect consul an in 250 wis nominatit govrenor o the Roman province o Moesia Superior, an appointment that shawed the confidence o Emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus wis a key figur in repellin the frequent invasion attacks bi the Gothic tribes o the Danube an became popular wi the airmy, catered tae durin his brief Imperial rule bi his offeecial image: militar haircut, gladiatorial physique, an intimidatin stance (illustration, left).[3]

Rise tae pouer[eedit | eedit soorce]

In Juin 251, Decius an his co-emperor an son Herennius Etruscus dee'd in the Battle o Abrittus at the haunds o the Goths thay wur supposed tae punish for raids intae the empire. Accordin tae rumours supportit bi Dexippus (a contemporar Greek historian) an the Thirteent Sibylline Oracle, Decius' failur wis lairgely awin tae Gallus, wha haed conspired wi the invaders. In ony case, whan the airmy heard the news, the sodgers proclaimit Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' survivin son, ascendin the imperial throne in Roum. This action o the airmy, an the fact that Gallus seems tae hae been on guid terms wi Decius' faimily, maks Dexippus' allegation improbable.[4] Gallus did no back doun frae his intention tae acome emperor, but acceptit Hostilian as co-emperor, aiblins tae avoid the damage o anither ceevil war.

Bronze o Gallus datin frae the time o his reign as Roman Emperor, the anerly survivin near-complete full-size 3rd-century Roman bronze (Metropolitan Museum o Airt)[5]

Anxious tae secure his poseetion at Roum an stabilize the situation on the Danube frontier, Gallus made peace wi the Goths. Peace terms alloued the Goths tae leave the Roman territory while keepin thair captives an plunder. In addeetion, it wis greit that thay wad be peyed a annual subsidy.[6] Reachin Roum, Gallus' proclamation wis formally confirmit bi the Senate, wi his son Volusianus bein appointit Caesar. On 24 Juin 251, Decius wis deifeed, but bi 15 Julie Hostilian disappears frae history—he mey hae dee'd in an ootbrak o plague.[7] Eager tae show hissel competent an gain popularity wi the ceetizens, Gallus swiftly dealt wi the epidemic, providin burial for the victims.

Gallus mey hae ordered a localisit an uncoordinatit persecution o Christians,[8] but the anerly solit evidence o this allegation is the impreesonment o Pape Cornelius in 252.

Lik his predecessors, Gallus didna hae an easy reign. In the East, an Antiochene nobleman, Mariades, revoltit an began ravagin Sirie an Cappadocie, then fled tae the Persies. Gallus ordered his troops tae attack the Persies, but Persie Emperor Shapur I invadit Armenie an destroyed a lairge Roman airmy, takkin it bi surprise at Barbalissos in 253. Shapur I then invadit the defenseless Sirie provinces, captured aw o its legionar posts an ravagit its ceeties, includin Antioch, athoot ony response.[9] Persie invasions wur repeated in the follaein year, but nou Uranius Antoninus (a priest oreeginally cried Sampsiceramus), a stryndant o the ryal hoose o Emesa, confrontit Shapur an forcit him tae retreat. He proclaimit hissel emperor,[8] housomever, an minted coins wi his image upon them.[10] On the Danube, Scythie tribes wur ance again on the luise, in maugre o the peace treaty signed in 251. Thay invadit Asie Minor bi sea, burnt the great Temple o Artemis at Ephesus, an returned hame wi plunder. Lawer Moesie wis invadit in early 253 an aw.[11] Aemilianus, govrenor o Moesia Superior an Pannonie, teuk the initiative o battle an defeatit the invaders.

Daith[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne the airmy wis nae langer pleased wi the Emperor, the sodgers proclaimit Aemilianus emperor. Wi a usurper threatenin the throne, Gallus prepared for a fecht. He recried several legions an ordered reinforcements tae return tae Roum frae Gaul unner the command o the futur emperor Publius Licinius Valerianus. In maugre o thir dispositions, Aemilianus mairched ontae Italy ready tae fecht for his claim an caucht Gallus at Interamna (modren Terni) afore the arrival o Valerianus. Whit exactly happened thare isna clear.[12] Later soorces claim that efter a initial defeat, Gallus an Volusianus wis murthert bi thair ain troops;[11] or Gallus didna hae the chance tae face Aemilianus ava acause his airmy gaed ower tae the usurper.[13] In ony case, baith Gallus an Volusianus wur killed in August 253.[14]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Southern, Pat, The Roman Empire From Severus To Constantine, Routledge, 2004, pg. 75
  2. In Clessical Laitin, Gallus' name wad be inscribit as CAIVS VIBIVS AFINIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS.
  3. Metropolitan Museum of Art: characteristics of the over-lifesize bronze portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, acc. no. 05.30
  4. Potter (2004), pp.247–248.
  5. Bronze portrait of Trebonianus Gallus, 05.30
  6. The Cambridge Ancient History, pp.39–40.
  7. Potter (2004), p.248.
  8. a b The Cambridge Ancient History, p.40.
  9. Potter (2004), pp.248–249.
  10. Potter (2004), pp.249–250.
  11. a b Potter (2004), p.252.
  12. See Bray (1997), p.38, fur baith versions o the story an their sources.
  13. The Cambridge Ancient History, p.41.
  14. Bray (1997), p.38.
  • Bray, John. Gallienus: A Study in Reformist and Sexual Politics, Wakefield Press, 1997. ISBN 1-86254-337-2
  • Bowman Alan K., Garnsey Peter, Cameron Averil (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History: The Crisis of Empire, A.D. 193–337, Cambridge Varsity Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8.
  • Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay AD 180–395, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-10058-5.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Media relatit tae Trebonianus Gallus at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal teetles
Precedit bi
Roman Emperor
Servit alangside: Hostilian (251) an Volusianus (251–253)
Succeedit bi
Poleetical offices
Precedit bi
Herennius Etruscus
Consul o the Roman Empire
wi Volusianus
Succeedit bi
Lucius Valerius Claudius Poplicola Balbinus Maximus