Train operatin company
A train operatin company (TOC) is a business operatin passenger trains on the railwey system of Great Breetain under the collective National Rail brand. TOCs have existed since the privatisation of the network under the Railways Act 1993. For a list, see Train operatin companies o Great Breetain.
There are two types of TOC: most hold franchises let by the government, following bids from various companies, to operate services on certain routes for a specified duration, while a small number of open access operators hold licences to provide supplementary services on chosen routes. These operators can run services for the duration of the licence validity. The franchised operators have changed considerably since privatisation: previous franchises have been divided, merged, re-let to new operators, or renamed.
The term is also sometimes used to describe companies operatin passenger or freight rail services over tracks that are owned by another company or a national network owner.